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Table 3 Trends in HIV prevalence by selected socio-demographic characteristics in rural and urban areas of Zambia, results of multivariate logistic regression and chi square tests for linear trend, 1995–2003: Age group15–24 years

From: Steep HIV prevalence declines among young people in selected Zambian communities: population-based observations (1995–2003)

    Males Females
    Adjusted Odds Ratio(95%CI): reference time, 1995   §MH χ2 for Linear trend, 1995–2003: Adjusted Odds Ratio(95%CI): reference time, 1995   §MH χ2 for Linear trend, 1995–2003:
    1999 2003 P value 1999 2003 P value
R Education (~age)       
   0–7 years 2.05(0.63–6.61) 0.69(0.17–2.80) 0.495 0.66(0.34–1.26) 0.43(0.19–0.93) 0.084
U   8–9 years 0.84(0.34–2.04) 0.40(0.09–1.78) 0.670 0.86(0.38–1.93) 0.25(0.05–1.26) 0.002
   ≥10 years 1.26(0.11–13.8) 0.16(0.11–0.25) 0.113 0.29(0.08–11.1) 0.10(0.01–7.34) 0.004
R Marital status Single 1.57(0.57–4.36) 0.58(0.21–1.64) 0.383 1.45(0.29–7.24) 0.36(0.04–2.98) 0.028
   Married 0.79(0.22–2.88) 0.14(0.02–1.30) 0.187 0.42(0.23–0.76) 0.29(0.13–0.68) 0.001*
A Employed Yes 0.75(0.36–1.59) 0.38(0.13–1.09) 0.194 1.59(0.15–17.2) 0.43(0.04–5.01) 0.215
   No 2.30(0.77–6.90) 0.44(0.13–1.56) 0.338 0.65(0.37–1.13) 0.33(0.14–0.78) 0.001*
  Travels Never 1.79(0.65–4.92) 0.68(0.31–1.48) 0.496 0.56(0.9–1.58) 0.35(0.13–0.97) 0.089
L   Sometimes 1.06(0.41–2.77) 0.18(0.05–0.60) 0.259 0.62(0.27–1.45) 0.27(0.11–0.68) 0.001*
   Often 1.21(0.49–2.99) 0.44(0.15–1.33) 0.396 0.47(0.16–1.39) 0.21(0.01–4.91) 0.113
  Duration lived <1 year #* 0.32(0.01–22.1) 0.649 0.33(0.08–1.39) 0.41(0.08–2.14) 0.087
  (In current residence) 1–5 yrs 1.77(0.53–5.92) 0.65(0.12–3.41) 0.565 0.85(0.39–1.88) 0.34(0.12–0.97) 0.058
   ≥6 yrs 1.92(0.43–8.56) 0.28(0.03–2.31) 0.184 0.51(0.15–1.72) 0.23(0.08–0.69) 0.003
  Migration Village 1.12(0.42–2.99) 1.07(0.30–3.79) 0.711 0.44(0.21–0.90) 0.18(0.06–0.55) 0.002
  (origin 5 years) Town 0.59(0.03–9.98) 0.01(0.00–0.13) 0.456 1.46(0.32–6.52) 0.75(0.20–2.77) 0.494
  Given birth Yes -- --   0.65(0.39–1.08) 0.42(19–0.89) 0.005
  (ever): age, 15–24 No -- --   0.45(0.21–0.96) 0.09(0.02–0.51) 0.001
U Education (~age)       
   0–7 years 6.69(2.47–18.1) 1.45(0.22–9.40) 0.634 0.65(0.39–1.07) 0.79(0.43–1.43) 0.674
R   8–9 years 0.42(0.06–2.78) 0.57(0.22–1.49) 0.885 1.20(0.66–2.18) 0.59(0.33–1.07) 0.110
   ≥10 years 0.94(0.45–1.95) 0.29(0.14–0.60) 0.001* 0.79(0.34–1.79) 0.38(0.19–0.79) 0.001*
B Marital status Single 1.29(0.66–2.53) 0.56(0.32–0.95) 0.011 1.09(0.68–1.74) 0.57(0.36–0.88) 0.002
   Married 1.03(0.69–1.55) 0.70(0.46–1.06) 0.306 0.49(0.30–0.80) 0.38(0.25–0.58) 0.003
A Employed Yes 1.89(0.35–10.2) 0.98(0.25–3.93) 0.454 1.02(0.39–2.66) 0.41(0.19–0.86) 0.232
   No 1.07(0.51–2.23) 0.41(0.23–0.73) 0.003 0.86(0.56–1.32) 0.53(0.34–0.83) 0.001*
N Travels Never 1.12(0.48–2.60) 0.79(0.34–1.87) 0.208 0.96(0.66–1.40) 0.58(0.39–0.85) 0.025
   Sometimes 1.45(0.34–6.19) 0.16(0.04–0.71) 0.003 0.86(0.51–1.45) 0.46(0.26–0.81) 0.001*
   Often 0.86(0.13–5.63) 0.99(0.19–5.21) 0.983 0.38(0.02–9.51) 0.32(0.06–1.84) 0.001*
  Duration lived <1 year 4.67(0.93–23.2) 0.51(0.16–1.62) 0.571 0.87(0.44–1.74) 0.66(0.33–1.35) 0.638
  (In current residence) 1–5 yrs 0.63(0.23–1.72) 0.33(0.16–0.69) 0.034 0.68(0.48–0.96) 0.42(0.26–0.67) 0.001*
   ≥6 yrs 1.60(0.22–11.5) 1.38(0.23–8.26) 0.353 1.26(0.46–3.40) 0.47(0.15–1.45) 0.001*
  Migration Village 1.49(0.37–6.12) 0.46(0.07–2.98) 0.902 1.19(0.32–4.45) 1.09(0.24–4.99) 0.865
  (origin 5 years) Town 1.08(0.31–3.74) 0.38(0.18–0.79) 0.068 0.71(0.48–1.08) 0.47(0.30–0.74) 0.001*
  Given birth Yes -- --   0.65(0.51–0.86) 0.47(0.30–0.74) 0.002
  (ever): age, 15–24 No -- --   0.96(0.67–1.38) 0.65(0.41–0.98) 0.129
  1. Notes: 1. § MH denotes Mantel-Haenszel chi square for linear trend, (1 degree of freedom) with continuity correction and statistically significant trends are highlighted in bold b) *signifies P < 0.001 2. Variables included in the model per strata were age, marital status, employment, religion, travel patterns, duration lived in current residence, migration origin in last five years and ever given birth for females 3. The effect of education was significantly different between age groups (interaction P = 0.021 in 1995, P < 0.001 in 1999&2003), hence the "age*education" interaction term included in the models. 4. Samples size in 1995, 1999 and 2003 and were 1548, 1721 and 2228 respectively 5. #* No respondent had HIV in 1999 (n = 32)