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Table 2 Population based age-specific prevalence differential trends of HIV infection by sex in Chelstone, Lusaka and Kapiri Mposhi, Zambia: 1995–2003

From: Steep HIV prevalence declines among young people in selected Zambian communities: population-based observations (1995–2003)

Sex Age group (years) Age-specific Prevalence, % (total number of respondents, n)
   Rural Urban
   1995 1999 2003 χ2 for trend (P value) Age-adjusted ORψ for 2003 (Ref., 1995) 1995 1999 2003 χ2 for trend (P value) Age-adjusted ORψ for 2003 (Ref., 1995)
Males 15–19 5.5 (73) 5.4(129) 2.1(146) 0.161   4.5(266) 6.3(224) 2.2(314) 0.144  
  20–24 5.8(103) 9.4(139) 4.3(163) 0.468   10.7(168) 8.6(208) 4.2(309) 0.006  
  25–29 20.9(67) 13.2(114) 12.2(147) 0.127   33.3(114) 22.0(109) 13.1(160) 0.001**  
  30–39 31.9(91) 23.1(169) 20.8(235) 0.048   40.0(150) 39.2(120) 35.4(181) 0.378  
  40–49 12.3(65) 12.9(101) 22.9(131) 0.036   41.5(106) 40.2(82) 33.3(78) 0.276  
  50–59 14.6(48) 9.3(92) 17.9(89) 0.416   26.5(34) 13.5(37) 25.8(66) 0.847  
  15–24           
     Crude 5.7(176) 7.5(268) 3.2(309) 0.143 0.56(0.25–1.26) 6.9(434) 7.4(432) 3.2(623) 0.005 0.40(0.25–0.66)
     Adjusted† 5.6 7.2 3.1 0.141   7.5 7.4 3.2 0.001  
     F:M ratio 2.8 1.46 2.06    3.12 2.47 3.87   
     Urban:Rural ratio 1.34 1.03 1.03    ----- ----- -----   
  15–49           
     Crude 15.3(399) 13.3(652) 13.0(822) 0.314 0.80(0.55–1.18) 21.4(804) 18.3(743) 12.6(1042) 0.000** 0.58(0.38–0.87)
     Adjusted† 15.4 12.8 11.6 0.072   24.8 18.3 16.9 0.000  
     F:M ratio 1.12 1.10 1.15    1.23 1.49 1.35   
     Urban:Rural ratio 1.61 1.43 1.46    ----- ----- -----   
Females 15–19 8.2(122) 5.9(217) 3.1(223) 0.039   12.3(391) 9.5(336) 7.7(431) 0.026  
  20–24 24.6(114) 15.9(163) 10.3(233) 0.001   35.4(311) 27.9(305) 17.6(409) 0.000**  
  25–29 17.7(79) 20.6(160) 18.2(187) 0.929   48.7(199) 41.2(221) 31.1(286) 0.000**  
  30–39 19.8(111) 18.4(233) 23.8%(256) 0.249   34.5(310) 39.3(244) 39.6(273) 0.202  
  40–49 17.8(73) 11.7(120) 14.7(156) 0.140   26.0(100) 22.3(112) 22.9(148) 0.614  
  50–59 15.4(52) 6.9(110) 5.3(94) 0.043   0(11) 25.0(12) 13.9(36) 0.444  
  15–24           
     Crude 16.1(236) 10.3(380) 6.8(456) 0.000** 0.36(0.19–0.67) 22.5(702) 18.3(641) 12.5(840) 0.000** 0.43(0.33–0.57)
     Adjusted† 15.7 10.5 6.4 0.000**   23.4 18.3 12.4 0.000**  
     Urban:Rural ratio 1.49 1.74 1.94    ------ ------ ------   
  15–49           
     Crude 17.4(499) 14.4(893) 14.1(1055) 0.118 0.76(0.47–1.23) 29.6(1311) 27.0(1218) 21.7(1547) 0.000** 0.68(0.57–0.81)
     Adjusted† 17.3 14.1 13.4 0.056   30.6 27.3 22.8 0.000**  
     Urban:Rural ratio 1.78 1.94 1.70        
  1. Notes 1. † Denotes standardised prevalence using the Zambia National Census for the year 2000 as reference population 2. ORψ stands for Odds ratio given with 95%Confidence Interval and adjusted with age as a continuous variable and confidence interval adjusted for clustering effect using Intercooled Stata version 8 with the Standard Enumeration Area (SEA) as clusters. Statistically significant OR, highlighted in bold 3. Chi square for linear trend, Extended Mantel-Haenszel (1 degree of freedom) with continuity correction was used: a) Statistically significant trends are highlighted in bold b) ** denotes P < 0.001 4. Sample sizes were n = 3158 in 1995, 3731 in 1999 & 4751 in 2003 (age group 15–59 years).