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Table 4 Differences in domain scores associated with determinants of HRQOL (negative numbers mean reduction of HRQOL, positive numbers an improvement in comparison to the references group, adjusted for all other variables in the table, presented is mean difference and its 95% confidence interval, all included interactions were significant at the level of p < 0.05 in multivariate evaluation)

From: Health-related quality of life in diabetic patients and controls without diabetes in refugee camps in the Gaza strip: a cross-sectional study

  Physical health Psychological Social relationships Environment
Effect modification by diabetes     
Diabetes patients     
   Male -36.1 (-47.0; -25.3) -31.8 (-42.7; -20.9) -14.2 (-24.9; -3.5) -1.7 (-11.3; 7.9)
   Female -45.2 (-53.4; -37.0) -45.4 (-53.7; -37.2) -19.5 (-27.6; -11.5) -12.3 (-19.6; -5.1)
Controls     
   Male -0.5 (-5.7; 4.7) -2.0 (-7.2; 3.2) -1.6 (-12.7; -3.4) -1.4 (-6.0; 3.2)
   Female Reference Reference Reference Reference
Diabetes patients     
   Age below 50 -26.4 (-37.2; -15.6) -24.9 (-35.8; -14.1) -8.7 (-19.4; 1.9) -6.8 (-16.4; 2.7)
   50 or more -45.2 (-53.4; -37.0) -45.4 (-53.7; -37.2) -19.5 (-27.6; -11.5) -12.3 (-19.6; -5.1)
Controls     
   Age below 50 -2.2 (-9.5; 5.1) -3.5 (-10.9; 3.8) -5.3 (-12.5; 1.9) 3.1 (-3.3; 9.6)
   50 or more Reference Reference Reference Reference
Diabetes patients     
   5 or less depending persons -53.8 (-64.8; -42.8) -51.4 (-62.4; -40.3) -28.9 (-39.7; -18.1) -23.3 (-33.1; -13.6)
   6 or more -45.2 (-53.4; -37.0) -45.4 (-53.7; -37.2) -19.5 (-27.6; -11.5) -12.3 (-19.6; -5.1)
Controls     
   5 or less depending persons 4.8 (-1.5; 11.1) 6.7 (0.4; 13.0) 4.0 (-2.2; 10.2) 11.7 (6.1; 17.2)
   6 or more Reference Reference Reference Reference
Other variables     
Younger refugees (age below 50)     
   Income below 200 -21.5 (-30.2; -12.8) -23.4 (-32.1; -14.7) -15.7 (-24.3; -7.2) -16.1 (-23.7; -8.4)
   Income above 200 -2.2 (-9.5; 5.1) -3.5 (-10.9; 3.8) -5.3 (-12.5; 1.9) 3.1 (-3.3; 9.6)
Older refugees (age of 50 or more)     
   Income below 200 -10.4 (-15.3; -5.5) -8.9 (-13.8; -4.0) -5.5 (-10.3; -0.7) -9.2 (-13.5; -4.9)
   Income above 200 Reference Reference Reference Reference
Younger refugees (age below 50)     
   5 or less depending persons 9.7 (-0.5; 19.9) 4.8 (-5.5; 15.0) 7.7 (-2.3; 17.7) 7.0 (-2.0; 16.0)
   6 or more -2.2 (-9.5; 5.1) -3.5 (-10.9; 3.8) -5.3 (-12.5; 1.9) 3.1 (-3.3; 9.6)
Older refugees (age of 50 or more)     
   5 or less depending persons 4.8 (-1.5; 11.1) 6.7 (0.4; 13.0) 4.0 (-2.2; 10.2) 11.7 (6.1; 17.2)
   6 or more Reference Reference Reference Reference
Marital status     
   Other -4.0 (-8.8; 0.8) -6.4 (-11.2; -1.7) -8.0 (-12.7; -3.4) -2.9 (-7.1; 1.3)
   Married Reference Reference Reference Reference