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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population by SES and age group

From: Explanations of socioeconomic differences in changes in physical function in older adults: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

  < 70 years n = 1262 ≥70 years n = 1104
Baseline characteristics Education Income Education Income
  high
n = 401
medium
n = 419
Low
n = 442
p high
n = 553
medium
n = 445
low
n = 248
p high
n = 261
medium
n = 311
low
n = 532
p high
n = 248
medium
n = 339
low
n = 481
p
Women, % 34.4 54.7 69.9 <0.01 41.0 55.7 75.8 <0.01 40.6 42.4 65.6 <0.01 39.1 41.9 68.2 <0.01
Age, mean (SD) 62.1
(4.2)
62.4
(4.3)
63.2
(4.2)
<0.01 61.5
(4.0)
62.9
(4.2)
64.4
(4.2)
<0.01 77.4
(4.3)
76.7
(4.2)
78.0
(4.3)
<0.01 77.4
(4.2)
76.9
(4.3)
77.7
(4.3)
0.03
Physical function                 
Baseline score (0–24), mean (SD) 23.4
(2.1)
23.1
(2.4)
22.4
(3.4)
<0.01 23.4
(1.8)
22.9
(2.7)
21.8
(4.0)
<0.01 21.3
(4.2)
20.8
(4.7)
19.1
(5.6)
<0.01 20.9
(4.3)
21.2
(4.3)
19.1
(5.8)
<0.01
Diseases                 
Cardiac disease, % 13.5 15.3 12.2 0.42 13.4 14.0 14.1 0.95 23.1 25.2 23.8 0.83 24.3 24.9 23.9 0.95
Peripheral atherosclerosis, % 5.0 4.8 9.7 <0.01 3.1 9.2 10.1 <0.01 11.5 12.3 10.1 0.60 8.9 10.7 12.2 0.41
Stroke, % 1.0 2.6 2.5 0.19 1.3 2.0 4.0 0.04 5.8 6.8 6.8 0.84 5.7 6.5 6.7 0.86
Diabetes mellitus, % 3.5 3.8 4.8 0.63 3.4 5.4 3.2 0.22 5.8 6.8 8.6 0.33 6.5 6.2 8.4 0.44
Lung disease, % 7.5 7.2 10.6 0.13 7.2 9.2 10.5 0.27 13.1 13.2 12.5 0.95 14.6 11.9 12.8 0.63
Cancer, % 5.0 7.0 8.1 0.19 6.3 6.3 8.9 0.36 6.7 11.3 11.6 0.11 8.1 10.7 11.3 0.39
Arthritis, % 26.3 29.9 35.7 0.01 25.0 34.0 38.7 <0.01 33.8 31.3 40.3 0.02 34.4 32.6 40.0 0.07
Behavioral factors                 
Smoking, %                 
   non-smoker 15.5 26.5 32.4 <0.01 19.2 26.1 35.1 <0.01 23.4 26.7 39.3 <0.01 22.2 25.4 42.2 <0.01
   former 49.9 41.5 33.3   46.5 40.2 32.3   45.2 45.0 28.9   50.0 42.5 28.5  
   smoker 28.4 23.2 25.3   28.2 24.9 21.4   18.8 19.0 15.4   15.3 20.4 16.0  
   missing 6.2 8.8 9.0   6.1 8.8 11.3   12.6 9.3 16.4   12.5 11.8 13.3  
Dinking, %                 
   non-drinker 9.0 13.4 23.1 <0.01 11.2 17.5 21.0 <0.01 15.3 19.0 26.1 <0.01 27.9 17.7 14.9 <0.01
   moderate 77.1 73.0 64.3   75.6 68.3 66.1   67.8 67.5 55.8   56.5 67.8 67.7  
   excessive 7.7 4.5 3.4   6.7 5.4 1.6   3.4 3.5 1.3   1.9 2.4 3.6  
   missing 6.2 9.1 9.3   6.5 8.8 11.3   13.4 10.0 16.7   13.7 12.1 13.7  
Physical activity, %                 
   6–7 29.9 28.6 20.1 <0.01 28.9 23.4 25.0 <0.01 11.5 11.9 9.2 <0.01 10.9 10.3 11.0 0.83
   4–5 45.6 44.9 44.1   46.5 47.6 37.1   33.3 41.2 39.8   37.5 41.9 39.3  
   0–3 22.2 19.6 29.6   21.9 22.0 31.5   48.3 42.1 39.7   46.0 42.5 42.4  
   missing 2.2 6.9 6.1   2.7 7.0 6.5   6.9 4.8 11.3   5.6 5.3 7.3  
BMI, %                 
   <25 38.2 31.7 23.1 <0.01 35.6 27.6 26.2 <0.01 41.4 29.6 21.2 <0.01 34.3 31.0 23.3 <0.01
   25-<30 42.9 44.4 47.3   47.4 43.8 40.7   33.3 44.7 34.8   33.1 42.5 37.4  
   ≥30 10.7 14.1 18.6   8.9 18.0 21.0   10.0 14.8 24.2   16.9 12.4 23.5  
   missing 8.2 9.8 11.1   8.1 10.6 12.1   15.3 10.9 19.7   15.7 14.2 15.8  
Psychosocial factors                 
With partner, % 84.0 81.1 75.3 <0.01 86.8 82.2 60.5 <0.01 62.1 65.3 45.1 <0.01 62.1 65.5 45.3 <0.01
Network size (0–75), mean (SD) 16.4
(9.3)
15.3
(8.3)
14.2
(7.9)
<0.01 16.3
(9.1)
14.8
(7.8)
13.9
(8.4)
<0.01 14.3
(8.0)
15.5
(8.2)
12.2
(6.8)
<0.01 14.6
(8.2)
13.4
(7.8)
12.0
(7.1)
<0.01
Instrumental support (0–36), mean (SD) 14.8
(6.5)
14.4
(6.1)
14.1
(6.7)
0.36 14.4
(6.1)
14.3
(6.6)
14.9
(7.0)
0.49 14.0
(6.8)
13.9
(6.8)
14.4
(6.8)
0.44 13.9
(6.6)
13.9
(6.4)
14.5
(7.4)
0.33
Emotional support (0–36), mean (SD) 23.4
(7.3)
22.9
(7.2)
22.2
(7.9)
0.07 23.1
(7.3)
22.7
(7.6)
22.4
(7.4)
0.48 22.5
(8.0)
21.0
(8.1)
19.9
(7.8)
<0.01 22.0
(8.0)
21.0
(7.8)
20.1
(8.4)
0.02
Mastery (5–25), mean (SD) 18.1
(3.2)
17.9
(3.1)
17.5
(3.4)
0.03 18.2
(3.1)
17.8
(3.2)
17.2
(3.3)
<0.01 17.0
(3.1)
17.2
(3.2)
16.7
(3.2)
0.08 16.9
(3.1)
16.9
(3.3)
16.9
(3.1)
0.99
Self-efficacy (12–60), mean (SD) 44.0
(5.1)
42.9
(4.8)
41.3
(5.5)
<0.01 43.4
(5.2)
42.5
(5.2)
41.4
(5.4)
<0.01 42.4
(5.3)
41.5
(5.0)
40.6
(4.8)
<0.01 42.1
(5.0)
41.4
(5.0)
40.8
(5.1)
<0.01