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Table 5 Attributable fraction estimates for the association of neck and upper limb pain with work activities and psychosocial factors in the workplace.

From: The impact of workplace risk factors on the occurrence of neck and upper limb pain: a general population study

  Neck and upper limb pain
  Pain versus no pain Severe pain versus non-severe pain*
  AFe # AFp # AFe # AFp #
Work activities     
   Repeated lifting of heavy objects 15.3 (6.5, 23.1) 7.3 (3.1, 11.1) - -
   Prolonged bending of neck 27.5 (20.6, 33.8) 13.8 (10.3, 16.9) 23.1 (6.5, 37.1) 11.6 (3.3, 18.6)
   Arms at/above shoulder height 9.9 (1.0, 18.7) 3.2 (0.3, 6.0) 16.7 (0.0, 31.0) 5.4 (0.0, 10.0)
Psychosocial factors     
   Little job control 16.0 (8.3, 22.5) 6.7 (3.5, 9.4) 21.3 (7.4, 33.3) 8.9 (3.1, 13.9)
   Physically demanding work - - 40.5 (26.5, 51.9) 17.3 (11.3, 22.1)
   Little supervisor support 12.3 (3.8, 20.0) 5.1 (1.6, 8.4) - -
  1. * Non-severe pain = no pain, or mild pain, or moderate pain.
  2. # Estimates are given as percentages (95% confidence intervals), adjusted for spare-time activities, previous neck/upper limb injury, duration of main job, time since end of main job, and coexisting knee, hip or low back pain. Only statistically significant estimates are shown. See text for definitions of AFp and AFe.