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Table 4 Multivariable analysis of association of work activities and psychosocial factors with individual areas of neck and upper limb pain: neck; shoulder(s); elbow(s); forearm(s), and hand(s).

From: The impact of workplace risk factors on the occurrence of neck and upper limb pain: a general population study

  Odds ratio (95% CI)*#
  Neck Shoulder(s) Elbow(s) Forearm(s) Hand(s)
Work activities      
   Repeated lifting of heavy objects 1.3 (1.0, 1.6)§ 1.4 (1.1, 1.7)§ 1.4 (1.1, 1.8)§ 1.6 (1.2, 2.0)§ 1.8 (1.4, 2.2)§
   Prolonged gripping of object 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 1.0 (0.9, 1.3) 1.2 (1.0, 1.6) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 1.6 (1.2, 2.0)§
   Prolonged bending of neck 2.8 (2.3, 3.4)§ 2.1 (1.8, 2.5)§ 1.5 (1.2, 1.9)§ 1.4 (1.1, 1.8)§ 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)
   Repeated finger movements 0.8 (0.6, 1.0) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 1.1 (0.9, 1.5)
   Repeated wrist movements 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.2 (0.9, 1.6) 1.4 (1.0, 1.8)§ 1.1 (0.8, 1.4)
   Arms at/above shoulder height 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4)
Psychosocial factors      
   Little job control 1.5 (1.2, 1.8)§ 1.4 (1.2, 1.7)§ 1.3 (1.1, 1.7)§ 1.5 (1.2, 1.8)§ 1.5 (1.2, 1.8)§
   Physically demanding work 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) 1.1 (1.0, 1.4) 1.4 (1.1, 1.8)§ 1.3 (1.0, 1.6)§ 1.1 (0.9, 1.4)
   Many changes in tasks 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
   Little job satisfaction 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 1.1 (0.8, 1.4) 0.9 (0.7, 1.2) 0.8 (0.6, 1.0)§
   Little supervisor support 1.3 (1.0, 1.6)§ 1.2 (1.0, 1.4) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)§
  1. * Odds ratios calculated through logistic regression adjusting for age category, sex, deprivation (Townsend score category), work tasks, psychosocial factors and pottery work as main job.
  2. # Number of cases analyzed was 3276.
  3. Psychosocial factors were dichotomized as 'none of the time' or 'a little of the time' or 'some of the time' (reference category for 'physically demanding work' and 'tasks change during time in this job') versus 'most of the time' or 'all of the time' (reference category for 'control the way you work', job satisfaction' and 'supportive supervisors/managers').
  4. § p < 0.05.