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Table 3 Multivariable analysis of factors associated with neck and upper limb pain.

From: The impact of workplace risk factors on the occurrence of neck and upper limb pain: a general population study

  Odds ratio (95% CI)*
  Partial model# Full model#
Age category   
   45–54 2.0 (1.6, 2.3)§ 2.2 (1.7, 2.7)§
   55–64 2.4 (2.0, 2.8)§ 2.7 (2.1, 3.4)§
   65–75 2.0 (1.7, 2.4)§ 2.5 (2.0, 3.2)§
Sex 1.2 (1.1, 1.4)§ 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)§
Townsend category   
   Moderately affluent 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.9 (0.7, 1.0)
   Moderately deprived 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 0.8 (0.7, 1.0)
   Deprived 1.4 (1.1, 1.7)§ 0.9 (0.7, 1.3)
Work activities   
   Repeated lifting of heavy objects 2.0 (1.8, 2.3)§ 1.4 (1.2, 1.7)§
   Prolonged gripping of object 2.0 (1.8, 2.3)§ 1.2 (1.0, 1.4)
   Prolonged bending of neck 2.6 (2.3, 3.0)§ 2.0 (1.7, 2.3)§
   Repeated finger movements 1.5 (1.3, 1.7)§ 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
   Repeated wrist movements 1.8 (1.6, 2.1)§ 1.1 (0.9, 1.3)
   Arms at/above shoulder height 2.1 (1.8, 2.4)§ 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)§
Psychosocial factors   
   Little job control 1.9 (1.6, 2.2)§ 1.6 (1.3, 1.8)§
   Physically demanding work 1.8 (1.6, 2.1)§ 1.1 (0.9, 1.3)
   Many changes in tasks 1.1 (0.9, 1.3) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2)
   Little job satisfaction 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)§ 0.9 (0.8, 1.1)
   Little supervisor support 1.5 (1.3, 1.8)§ 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)§
Pottery work as main job 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)§ 0.9 (0.7, 1.2)
  1. * Odds ratios calculated through i) partial multivariable analysis using logistic regression adjusting for age category, sex, deprivation (Townsend score category), ii) full multivariable analysis using logistic regression adjusting for age category, sex, deprivation (Townsend score category), work tasks, psychosocial factors and pottery work as main job. Reference categories for both models were: '18–44 years' for age; 'Male' for sex; 'Affluent' for Townsend index of deprivation.
  2. # Number of cases analyzed. 1) Partial models: 4994 for age, gender and Townsend categories; 3956 for work activities; between 3342 and 3455 for psychosocial factors; 3956 for pottery work. 2) Full model: numbers analyzed was 3276.
  3. Psychosocial factors were dichotomized as 'none of the time' or 'a little of the time' or 'some of the time' (reference category for 'physically demanding work' and 'tasks change during time in this job') versus 'most of the time' or 'all of the time' (reference category for 'control the way you work', job satisfaction' and 'supportive supervisors/managers').
  4. § p < 0.05.