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Table 2 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for univariate analysis of HBV serostatus.

From: Demographic, risk behaviour and personal network variables associated with prevalent hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV infection in injection drug users in Winnipeg, Canada

Variable name HBV negative (n = 253) (%) HBV positive (n = 111) (%) OR (95% CI) p value
Respondent variables
Years of injection drug use (quartiles)
0–6 97 (38.3) 5 (4.5) 1.0  
7–13 74 (29.3) 23 (20.7) 6.0 (2.2–16.6) <0.001
14–21 42 (16.6) 36 (32.4) 16.6 (6.1–45.3) <0.001
22–39 40 (15.8) 47 (42.3) 22.8 (8.4–61.5) <0.001
Gender     
Male 150 (59.3) 60 (54.0) 1.0  
Female 103 (40.7) 51 (46.0) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 0.353
Education level     
< grade 12 178 (70.4) 79 (71.2) 1.0  
> grade 12 75 (29.6) 32 (28.8) 1.0 (0.6–1.3) 0.485
Ethnicity     
Caucasian 99 (39.1) 29 (26.1) 1.0  
Aboriginal 154 (60.9) 82 (73.9) 1.8 (1.1–3.0) 0.015
Mobility     
In Winnipeg > 1 year 168 (66.4) 97 (87.4) 1.0  
Moved to Winnipeg in past year 85 (33.6) 14 (12.6) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) <0.001
Deals drugs     
No 129 (51.0) 61 (55.0) 1.0  
Yes 124 (49.01 50 (45.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.3) 0.485
Cocaine use     
No 85 (33.6) 44 (39.6) 1.0  
Yes 168 (66.4) 67 (60.4) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.27
Talwin/ritalin use
No 190 (75.1) 55 (49.6) 1.0  
Yes 63 (24.9) 56 (50.5) 3.1 (1.9–4.9) <0.001
Morphine use     
No 165 (64.8) 68 (61.3) 1.0  
Yes 89 (35.2) 43 (38.7) 1.2 (0.7–1.8) 0.516
Heroin use     
No 222 (87.8) 106 (95.5) 1.0  
Yes 31 (12.3) 5 (4.5) 0.3 (0.1–0.9) 0.015
Injects daily     
No 34 (13.4) 26 (23.4) 1.0  
Yes 219 (86.6) 85 (76.6) 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.021
Injected at a hotel
No 160 (63.2) 53 (47.8) 1.0  
Yes 93 (36.8) 58 (52.2) 1.9 (1.2–3.0) 0.006
injected at a shooting gallery
No 224 (88.5) 85 (62.2) 1.0  
Yes 29 (11.5) 26 (23.4) 2.4 (1.3–4.2) 0.004
Ever used someone else's syringe
No 114 (45.1) 25 (22.5) 1.0  
Yes 139 (54.9) 86 (77.5) 2.8 (1.7–4.7) <0.001
Injected someone else as a service
No 204 (80.6) 66 (59.5) 1.0  
Yes 49 (19.4) 45 (40.6) 2.8 (1.7–4.6) <0.001
Obtains syringes from friends
No 81 (32.0) 41 (16.9) 1.0  
Yes 172 (68.0) 70 (63.1) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.362
Obtains syringes from questionable sources
No 197 (77.9) 81 (73.0) 1.0  
Yes 56 (22.1) 30 (27.0) 1.3 (0.8–2.2) 0.316
Opposite-sex regular partners
No 81 (32.0) 36 (32.4) 1.0  
Yes 172 (68.0) 75 (67.6) 1.0 (0.6–1.6) 0.938
Opposite-sex casual partners
No 149 (58.9) 80 (72.1) 1.0  
Yes 104 (41.1) 31 (27.9) 0.6 (0.3–0.9) 0.015
Opposite-sex client partners
No 223 (88.1) 90 (81.1) 1.0  
Yes 30 (11.9) 21 (18.9) 1.7 (0.9–3.2) 0.081
Regular same-sex partners
No 245 (96.8) 109 (98.2) 1.0  
Yes 8 (3.2) 2 (1.8) 0.6 (0.1–2.7) 0.448
Casual same-sex partners
No 240 (94.9) 109 (98.2) 1.0  
Yes 13 (5.1) 2 (1.8) 0.3 (0.1–1.5) 0.113
Client same-sex partners
No 247 (97.6) 109 (98.2) 1.0  
Yes 6 (2.4) 2 (1.8) 0.8 (0.2–3.8) 0.728
Egocentric network variables (maximum number of network members = 20)
Total number of IDU in network
Median (IQR) 3 (1,4) 3 (2,5) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.001
Total number of IDU family members in network
Median (IQR) 0 (0,1) 0 (0,1) 1.3 (1.0–1.5) 0.019
Spouse IDU in network
No 169 (66.8) 69 (62.2) 1.0  
Yes 84 (33.2) 42 (37.8) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 0.394
IDU risk network variables (maximum number of IDU = 5)
Number of IDU respondent sees daily
None 83 (32.8) 38 (34.2) 1.0  
1 84 (33.2) 38 (34.2) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.965
2 48 (19.0) 13 (11.7) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) 0.155
3–5 38 (15.0) 22 (19.8) 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 0.479
Number of IDU in network who inject daily
None 160 (63.2) 50 (45.1) 1.0  
1 42 (16.6) 25 (22.5) 1.9 (1.1–3.4) 0.032
2 31 (12.3) 17 (15.3) 1.8 (0.9–3.4) 0.101
3–5 20 (7.9) 19 (17.1) 3.0 (1.5–6.1) 0.002
Number of IDU in network who have been IDU for >5 years
0 142 (56.1) 34 (30.6) 1.0  
1 50 (19.8) 18 (16.2) 1.5 (0.8–2.9) 0.223
2 32 (12.7) 24 (21.6) 3.1 (1.6–6.0) 0.001
3–5 29 (11.5) 35 (31.5) 5.0 (2.7–9.4) <0.001
Number of IDU in network who have injected at a hotel
0 175 (69.2) 54 (48.7) 1.0  
1 48 (19.0) 20 (18.0) 1.4 (0.7–2.5) 0.330
2–5 30 (11.9) 37 (33.3) 4.0 (2.3–7.1) <0.001
Number of IDU in network who have injected at a shooting gallery
0 204 (80.6) 74 (66.7) 1.0  
1 30 (11.9) 15 (13.5) 1.4 (0.7–2.7) 0.351
2–5 19 (7.5) 22 (19.8) 3.2 (1.6–6.2) 0.001
Number of IDU in network with whom respondent has pooled money
0 84 (33.2) 23 (20.7) 1.0  
1 62 (24.5) 33 (29.7) 1.9 (1.0–3.6) 0.037
2–3 64 (25.3) 34 (30.6) 1.9 (1.0–3.6) 0.036
4–5 43 (17.0) 21 (18.9) 1.8 (0.9–3.6) 0.103
Number of IDU in network who have used a syringe before the respondent used it
0 191 (75.5) 87 (78.4) 1.0  
1 47 (18.6) 12 (10.8) 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.097
2–5 15 (5.9) 12 (10.8) 1.8 (0.8–3.9) 0.168
Number of IDU in network who have used other drug paraphernalia before respondent has used it.
0 155 (61.3) 67 (60.4) 1.0  
1 46 (18.2) 13 (11.8) 0.7 (0.3–1.3) 0.220
2–5 52 (20.6) 31 (27.9) 1.4 (0.8–2.3) 0.234
Number of IDU in network who have initiated respondent to injection drug use
0 177 (70.0) 88 (79.2) 1.0  
1 63 (24.9) 21 (18.9) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 0.159
2–5 13 (5.1) 2 (1.8) 0.3 (0.1–1.4) 0.128
Number of IDU in network who have shown respondent how to inject drugs
0 172 (68.0) 79 (71.2) 1.0  
1 58 (22.9) 23 (20.7) 0.9 (0.5–1.5) 0.602
2–5 23 (9.1) 9 (8.1) 0.8 (0.4–1.9) 0.700
Number of IDU in network who have injected respondent with drugs
0 133 (52.6) 43 (38.7) 1.0  
1 65 (25.7) 33 (29.7) 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 0.103
2–5 55 (21.7) 35 (31.5) 2.0 (1.1–3.4) 0.015
Number of IDU in network who have used talwin/ritalin
0 197 (77.9 59 (53.2) 1.0  
1–3 31 (12.3) 29 (26.1) 3.1 (1.7–5.6) <0.001
4–5 25 (9.9) 48 (13.2) 3.1 (1.6–5.8) 0.001
Number of IDU in network who have used cocaine
0 168 (66.4) 64 (57.7) 1.0  
1 39 (15.4) 20 (18.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.5) 0.340
2–3 26 (10.3) 21 (18.9) 2.1 (1.1–4.0) 0.022
4–5 20 (7.9) 26 (7.1) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) 0.625
Number of IDU in network who have used morphine
0 198 (78.3) 80 (72.1) 1.0  
1 34 (13.4) 18 (16.2) 1.3 (0.7–2.5) 0.399
2–5 21 (8.3) 13 (11.7) 1.5 (0.7–3.2) 0.258