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Table 3 Summary of health system and patient costs in Haiti

From: Impact of DOTS expansion on tuberculosis related outcomes and costs in Haiti

  MEAN (SD) SOURCE
Pre-Diagnosis    
Total Time (onset of symptoms to diagnosis) 4.4 months (3.5 months) PCQ
Number of Visits 4.7 (7.2) PCQ
Cost to health system for visits (total) $16.31   
   Lab costs (per patient – 3AFB smears) $4.46 (--) [53]
Patients out-of-pocket: for visits (total) $40.55 ($138) PCQ
Miscellaneous $22.87 ($116.85) PCQ
Lost income for patient/family: for visits $6.19*   PCQ
Miscellaneous $61.71*   PCQ
Hospitalization    
N (%) hospitalized 47 (56%)   
Average length of stay (for all 84) 21.3 days (27.2) PCQ
Health system costs (per patient) $321.00 (--) HFQ
Patient out-of-pocket (per hospitalization) $92.69 ($323.41) PCQ
Lost income for patients and family $29.40* ($44.37) PCQ
Direct Observation of Treatment (DOT)    
Number of visits 75 -- NTP
N (%) on DOT 43 (51%) --  
Health system costs: for DOT (total) $48.75 -- HFQ
For drug costs (new case) $20.93 -- **
Patient out-of-pocket expenses (total) $56.25 ($141.00) PCQ
Lost income for patient and family $20.40* ($25.50) PCQ
Follow-up (Medical Check Up)    
Number of visits 6 -- NTP
Health system costs (total) $20.82 -- HFQ
Patient out-of-pocket expenses $1.88 ($11.65) PCQ
Lost income for patient and family $2.35* ($3.67) PCQ
Total cost per TB patient treated    
Health system $432.27   
Patient and Family: out-of-pocket costs $214.24   
Lost Income $120.05   
Total patients and families $334.29   
  1. Notes:
  2. * Income = $0.17 (US) per hour based on average per capita GNI ($440) (reference 9)/2496 hours (= 48 hours × 52 weeks)
  3. PCQ = Patient cost questionnaire
  4. HFQ = Health facility questionnaire
  5. NTP = National TB programme guidelines
  6. ** = Prices for drugs in DOTS areas from [86], and 1.4 times higher in non-DOTS areas [15;16]