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Table 2 Description of the use of three conceptual life course models based on workforce participation at three periods in life (ages 10–15, 30–35 and 40–45). A total population investigation from Scania, Sweden.

From: Similar support for three different life course socioeconomic models on predicting premature cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality

Critical period* Intergenerational (A,B,C)‡ Intragenerational (B,C)§
(A) 10–15 years (B) 30–35 years (C) 40–45 years Social mobility† Cumulative risk¶ Social mobility†
1 1 1 Stable outside workforce 3 Stable outside workforce
1 1 0 Into workforce (C) 2 Into workforce (C)
1 0 0 Into workforce (B,C) 1 Stable inside workforce
0 1 1 Out of workforce (B,C) 2  
0 0 1 Out of workforce (C) 1 Out of workforce (C)
0 0 0 Stable inside workforce 0  
  1. * Critical period model focuses on the importance of an independent effect of exposure to being outside the workforce during a specific sensitive period in life, having lasting effects on adult health. Subjects inside the workforce = 0 and subjects outside the workforce = 1.
  2. † The social mobility model focuses on the importance of change in workforce participation to adult health.
  3. ‡ Intergenerational social mobility was defined as having a different workforce participation in childhood than in adulthood. Intergenerational social mobility was defined as mobility out of, into, or stable inside or outside the workforce comparing the childhood workforce participation (i.e., workforce participation of the household) with the subject's own workforce participation at age 30–35 and at age 40–45.
  4. § Intragenerational social mobility was defined as having a different workforce participation at age 30–35 and at age 40–45. Intragenerational social mobility was defined as mobility out of, into, or stable inside or outside the workforce comparing the subject's own workforce participation at age 30–35 and at age 40–45.
  5. ¶ The cumulative risk model focuses on accumulation of risk during the life course. The cumulative score ranged from 0 to 3 since it was calculated by summing workforce participation values (i.e., subjects inside the workforce were given 0 points and subjects outside the workforce were given 1 point) at ages 10–15, 30–35 and 40–45.