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Table 3 Awareness of attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population

From: Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

  Total Men Women
  Mean % (95%CI) Mean % (95%CI) Mean % (95%CI)
Preventable fraction of cancer (%) by eliminating:       
   Cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection 51.3 (49.5- 53.0) 48.7 (46.1- 51.3) 53.4 (51.1- 55.6)
   Tobacco smoking 43.0 (41.6- 44.4) 40.1 (38.1- 42.2) 45.4 (43.6- 47.3)
   Stress 39.0 (37.6- 40.4) 35.8 (33.7- 37.9) 41.6 (39.7- 43.5)
   Endocrine-disrupting chemicals 37.1 (35.7- 38.5) 34.9 (32.8- 37.0) 38.9 (37.1- 40.8)
   Occupational exposure 36.0 (34.5- 37.4) 33.2 (31.1- 35.4) 38.2 (36.3- 40.2)
   Air pollution 34.7 (33.4- 36.0) 32.5 (30.5- 34.5) 36.6 (34.7- 38.4)
   Food additives and pesticides 31.4 (30.2- 32.7) 28.7 (26.9- 30.5) 33.7 (32.0- 35.4)
   Unbalanced diet 28.8 (27.6- 30.0) 26.1 (24.4- 27.7) 31.0 (29.4- 32.7)
   Obesity 28.2 (27.0- 29.4) 25.4 (23.6- 27.1) 30.6 (28.9- 32.3)
   Physical inactivity 26.0 (24.8- 27.1) 23.8 (22.1- 25.5) 27.8 (26.2- 29.4)
   Alcohol drinking 21.7 (20.7- 22.7) 19.2 (17.8- 20.6) 23.7 (22.3- 25.1)
   Charred fish and meat 21.4 (20.3- 22.5) 20.1 (18.4- 21.8) 22.5 (21.0- 23.9)
Fraction of cancer genetically determined (%) 31.5 (30.2- 32.9) 32.0 (30.0- 34.1) 31.1 (29.4- 32.8)
Fraction of cancer preventable by improving lifestyle (%) 35.5 (34.6- 36.5) 33.7 (32.3- 35.2) 37.0 (35.7- 38.3)
  1. CI: Confidence interval
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