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Table 1 Population-based patterns among 5876 cases of paediatric injury: external causes across developmental groups

From: Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

Age groups 0–11 months 12–35 months 36–59 months 60–83 months All ages Trend* % admitted
Total number of emergency department-attended injuries 434 2097 1758 1587 5876   2.8
Annual injury rate per 1000 (95% CI) 62 (17–107) 153 (122–184) 105 (76–134) 90 (62–119) 107 (91–123)   
EXTERNAL CAUSE OF INJURY n % n % n % n % n %   
Falls 262 60.4 1160 55.3 935 53.2 784 49.4 3141 53.5 3.0
Falls from one level to another 212 48.8 569 27.1 501 28.5 374 23.6 1656 28.2 4.3
Fall from furniture 119 27.4 263 12.5 220 12.5 80 5.0 682 11.6 3.2
Fall on stairs 35 8.1 169 8.1 93 5.3 51 3.2 348 5.9 3.2
Fall from playground equipment (tree houses, trampolines, air castles) 2 0.5 45 2.1 104 5.9 162 10.2 313 5.3 6.7
Fall from other specified object 20 4.6 68 3.2 73 4.2 70 4.4 231 3.9   4.3
Fall from being dropped 36 8.3 24 1.1 11 0.6 11 0.7 82 1.4 9.8
Falls on the same level 49 11.3 567 27.0 394 22.4 360 22.7 1370 23.3   1.3
Fall into furniture 19 4.4 161 7.7 92 5.2 28 1.8 300 5.1  
Fall into object 11 2.5 152 7.2 94 5.3 74 4.7 331 5.6   
Fall on same level-sports/pools 2 0.5 13 0.6 18 1.0 66 4.2 99 1.7  
Other and unspecified falls 17 3.9 241 11.5 190 10.8 192 12.1 640 10.9  
Falls from collisions, pushing or shoving by/with another person 1 0.2 24 1.1 40 2.3 50 3.2 115 2.0 3.5
Poisoning, ingestion, chemical spray, asphyxiation, foreign body 39 9.0 260 12.4 174 9.9 120 7.6 593 10.1 4.7
Mouth/ingestion, choking on food 33 7.6 166 7.9 63 3.6 26 1.6 288 4.9  
Nose 0 0.0 45 2.1 47 2.7 15 0.9 107 1.8   
Eye/spray 1 0.2 24 1.1 27 1.5 28 1.8 80 1.4  
Ear/ear lobe 1 0.2 9 0.4 18 1.0 29 1.8 57 1.0  
Other foreign body 0 0.0 12 0.6 18 1.0 18 1.1 48 0.8  
Inhalation smoke, carbon monoxide 4 0.9 4 0.2 1 0.1 4 0.3 13 0.2   
Struck by object or person 30 6.9 90 4.3 106 6.0 154 9.7 380 6.5 2.4
Object fell, dropped on 15 3.5 52 2.5 32 1.8 32 2.0 131 2.2   
Object propelled, swung, moving 1 0.2 16 0.8 31 1.8 48 3.0 96 1.6  
Person hit, kick, fall or step on 11 2.5 17 0.8 27 1.5 31 2.0 86 1.5   
Object/person sports 0 0.0 3 0.1 14 0.8 42 2.6 59 1.0  
Other 3 0.7 2 0.1 2 0.1 1 0.1 8 0.1   
Collisions with object/person 7 1.6 97 4.6 129 7.3 130 8.2 363 6.2 1.4
Collision with object 6 1.4 92 4.4 118 6.7 114 7.2 330 5.6  
Collision with person 1 0.2 4 0.2 10 0.6 15 0.9 30 0.5  
Collision other 0 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.1 1 0.1 3 0.1   
Caught in or between 17 3.9 89 4.2 86 4.9 78 4.9 270 4.6   0.7
Cut or pierced 9 2.1 50 2.4 80 4.6 96 6.0 235 4.0 0.9
Pulled arm 7 1.6 143 6.8 51 2.9 6 0.4 207 3.5 0
Animal bite/scratch 7 1.6 41 2.0 57 3.2 59 3.7 164 2.8 1.2
Pedal cycle injuries fell/lost control/collision (non motor vehicle) 0 0.0 13 0.6 42 2.4 82 5.2 137 2.3 4.4
Burns 23 5.3 74 3.5 30 1.7 15 0.9 142 2.4 4.9
Motor vehicle collisions 20 4.6 26 1.2 38 2.2 42 2.6 126 2.1   6.3
Occupant 19 4.4 23 1.1 31 1.8 35 2.2 108 1.8   
Pedestrian/pedal cyclist 1 0.2 2 0.1 5 0.3 6 0.4 14 0.2   
ATV/snowmobile 0 0.0 1 0.0 2 0.1 1 0.1 4 0.1   
Other/unspecified 13 3.0 54 2.6 30 1.7 21 1.3 118 2.0   
  1. * Results of significant Chi-square test for trend: ↑ proportion of total increased in older age groups (p < 0.05); proportion of total decreased in older age groups (p < 0.05)