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Table 3 Environmental factors for tuberculosis: comparison of TB cases and clinic controls.

From: Risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis: a clinic-based case control study in The Gambia

Variable Controls n (%) Cases n (%) Total No. triplets OR (95% CI) p-value Adja OR (95% CI) Adja p value
Electric or gas cooker    100     
   Absent 159 (79.5) 86 (86%)   1.0    
   Present 41 (20.5) 14 (14%)   0.60 (0.29–1.21) 0.15   
Ceiling    100     
   Yes 155 (77.5) 63 (63)   1.0    
   No 45 (22.5) 37 (37)   2.08 (1.21–3.57) 0.008 2.27 (1.07–4.83) 0.032
Walls    100     
   Cement 136 (68) 56 (56)   1.0    
   Mud 4 (2) 11 (11)   5.92 (1.86–18.81) 0.003 4.52 (0.93–21.98) 0.062
   Mudbrick/other 60 (30) 33 (33)   1.30 (0.77–2.19) 0.33 0.83 (0.39–1.74) 0.62
Floor    100     
   Earth 27 (13.5) 18 (18)   1.0    
   Concrete/tiles 170 (85) 71 (71)   0.72 (0.39–1.37) 0.32   
Number of windows    99     
   0–1 60 (30.3) 29 (29.3)   1.0    
   2–4 116 (58.5) 51 (51.5)   0.89 (0.51–1.54) 0.67   
   >4 24 (12.1) 18 (18.2)   1.49 (0.69–3.23) 0.32   
Occupation head of house    74     
   Unemployed 18 (10.2) 10 (12.5)   0.55 (0.19–1.55) 0.26   
   Unskilled worker 37 (21.0 10 (12.5)   1.0    
   Skilled worker 18 (10.2) 3 (3.8)   0.96 (0.37–2.48) 0.94   
   Professional 86 (48.8) 40 (50)   0.33 (0.07–1.46) 0.14   
   Other 17 (9.7) 17 (21.3)   1.95 (0.63–5.96) 0.24   
Crowding index    91     
   1 44 (23.2) 10 (11.8)   1.0    
   2 31 (16.4) 11 (12.9)   1.49 (0.54–4.09) 0.44 2.39(0.71–8.02) 0.16
   3 189 (60.3) 64 (75.3)   2.31 (1.05–5.12) 0.038 5.12 (1.82–14.38) 0.002
Household member had TB    100     
   No/unsure 178 (89) 55 (55)      
   yes 22 (11) 45 (45)   6.02 (3.23–11.25) <0.0001 7.55 (3.43–16.6) <0.0001
  1. aAdjusted through multivariable analysis