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Table 1 Predisposing, need and enabling factors of health-care services use by gender.

From: Gender differences in the utilization of health-care services among the older adult population of Spain

  % women (n = 1672) % men (n = 1358) p
Predisposing Factors    
Age (years)    
   - 60–64 26.27 25.33 <0.0001
   - 65–69 17.22 24.16  
   - 70–74 21.35 22.74  
   - 75–79 14.91 14.99  
   - 80 and over 20.26 12.79  
Head of family 30.20 93.67 <0.0001
Need Factors    
Physical activity    
   - Sedentary 49.67 34.52 <0.0001
   - Occasional 48.03 61.42  
   - Regular 2.30 4.06  
Body mass index (kg/m2) (%)    
   - < 25 22.96 18.86 <0.0001
   - 25–29.9 37.48 50.36  
   - 30 39.56 30.77  
Tobacco use    
   - Never 93.99 30.52 <0.0001
   - Ex-smoker 3.87 49.13  
   - Smoker 2.14 20.35  
Alcohol consumption    
   - Abstainer 70.49 24.99 <0.0001
   - Ex-drinker 6.13 18.15  
   - Moderate drinker 20.82 38.09  
   - Heavy drinker 2.56 18.77  
Arterial hypertension 69.28 66.93 0.173
Number of chronic diseases    
   - 0 17.58 31.13 <0.0001
   - 1 38.89 38.56  
   - 2 27.00 19.67  
   - 3 or more 16.53 10.63  
Independent in IADL 59.30 72.90 <0.0001
Cognitive deficit (Cognition Mini-exam) 25.30 14.94 <0.0001
Health-related quality of life (SF-36)    
   - Summary Physical Index (mean and SD) 42.66 (10.43) 46.19 (10.75) <0.0001
   - Summary Mental Index (mean and SD) 47.43 (11.19) 52.40 (9.81) <0.0001
Enabling Factors    
Educational level    
   - No formal education 55.56 44.29 <0.0001
   - Primary 35.29 36.15  
   - Secondary 6.47 13.29  
   - University 2.67 6.27  
Marital status: married 47.71 81.56 <0.0001
Head-of-family employment status    
   - Employed 13.37 33.15 <0.0001
   - Unemployed 0.82 3.53  
   - Retired/Housewife 85.81 63.32  
Social network    
   - Lives alone 23.13 8.64 <0.0001
   - Sees family daily or almost daily 54.16 51.93 0.220
   - Sees friends or neighbours daily or almost daily 81.39 88.24 <0.0001
  1. IADL: instrumental activities of daily living. SD: standard deviation