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Table 2 Smoking behaviour of subjects aged 10 years or older living in communities with different numbers of inhabitants

From: Urban-rural disparities in smoking behaviour in Germany

  <20,000 inhabitants n = 82,462 20,000 – 500.000 inhabitants n = 74,385 >500.000 inhabitants n = 24,477
  Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women
Smoking status          
   Current regular smoker 21.7 27.8 16.0 23.6* 29.0* 18.7* 28.0* 33.0* 23.6*
   Current occasional smoker 3.2 3.5 3.0 3.6* 3.9* 3.3* 3.5* 3.7 3.4*
   Former smoker 16.6 22.8 10.9 17.4* 23.1 12.3* 18.8* 23.3 14.9*
   Never-smoker 58.4 46.0 70.1 55.4* 44.0* 65.7* 49.7* 40.1* 58.1*
Starting age 18.3 ± 5.1 17.9 ± 4.5 18.9 ± 6.0 18.6 ± 5.6* 18.1 ± 4.9* 19.4 ± 6.5* 18.6 ± 5.7* 17.9 ± 4.8 19.4 ± 6.6*
Type of tobacco products usually smoked †          
   cigarettes 96.3 94.5 99.3 96.2 94.2 99.0* 96.5* 94.5 99.0*
   cigars, small cigars 2.1 3.0 0.6 2.3 3.3 0.8* 2.1 3.2 0.8
   pipes 1.6 2.4 0.2 1.6 2.5 0.2 1.3 2.3 0.2
Number of daily smoked cigarettes*          
   <5 17.1 12.8 24.1 16.6 12.1* 22.7* 14.8* 10.9* 19.4*
   5 – 20 67.3 67.9 66.3 66.1* 66.1* 66.1 63.8* 62.3* 65.7
   21 – 40 12.3 15.4 7.2 13.7* 17.3* 8.7* 17.1* 21.6* 11.8*
   >40 1.6 2.2 0.6 2.1* 2.9* 1.0* 2.6* 3.7* 1.3*
  1. German Microcensus 1999. Data are percentage and mean ± standard deviation.
  2. * p < 0.05, logistic regression and ANOVA, references: total, male and female population living in rural communities
  3. † Current and former smokers