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Table 1 Selected characteristics of subjects aged 10 years or older living in communities with different numbers of inhabitants

From: Urban-rural disparities in smoking behaviour in Germany

  Rural communities <20,000 inhabitants n = 82,462 Urban communities 20,000 – 500.000 inhabitants n = 74,385 Metropolitan communities >500.000 inhabitants n = 24,477
  Total Men Women Total Men Women Total Men Women
Sex (male); % 48.6 - - 47.2* - - 46.7* - -
Age; years 45 ± 20 43 ± 19 46 ± 21 46 ± 20* 44 ± 19* 47 ± 21* 46 ± 20* 44 ± 19* 47 ± 21*
School education          
   <10 years 57.4 56.6 58.2 52.0* 50.4* 53.4* 45.1* 43.6* 46.4*
   10 years 28.3 26.6 30.0 26.4* 24.2* 28.2* 26.7* 24.1* 28.9*
   >10 years 14.2 16.8 11.8 21.6* 25.3* 18.4* 28.3* 32.3* 24.7*
Marital status          
   single 29.8 34.3 25.5 31.3* 35.2* 27.8* 34.1* 37.8* 30.8*
   married 57.4 59.1 55.9 53.7* 56.8* 51.0* 49.4* 53.0* 46.3*
   divorced 8.8 3.1 14.1 9.1* 3.2 14.4 9.0 3.1 14.1
   widowed 4.0 3.5 4.5 5.9* 4.8* 6.9* 7.5* 6.0* 18.9*
Monthly income          
   <1000 DM 35.4 20.8 49.0 32.7* 20.2 43.9* 27.9* 18.6* 36.0*
   1000 DM – <2500 DM 39.5 38.2 40.7 39.2 35.7* 42.3* 38.8 34.2* 42.9*
   2500 DM – <4000 DM 17.0 26.5 8.1 19.0* 28.2* 10.8* 22.3* 29.4* 16.2*
   ≥4000 DM 8.1 14.5 2.2 9.1* 15.9* 3.0* 10.9* 17.8* 4.9*
Residency in East Germany 24.2 23.8 24.5 20.2* 19.9* 20.5* 30.6* 30.7* 30.6*
  1. German Microcensus 1999. Data are percentage and mean ± standard deviation.
  2. 100 DM = 51.13 Euro
  3. * p < 0.05, logistic regression and ANOVA; references: total, male and female population living in rural communities