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Table 2 Prevalence rates of mental health problems by relative age at school.

From: Continuous admission to primary school and mental health problems

Age-group (years), grade N CBCL Total Problems scores (mean, standard error) P-value
   Old Middle Young  
5–6 (grade 2) 9,069 17.10 (0.27) 17.81 (0.27) 18.02 (0.28) 0.017 *
Cross-section 1,332 15.64 (0.64) 16.03 (0.67) 16.27 (0.65) 0.588 *
RCT 7,737 17.35 (0.30) 18.10 (0.30) 18.32 (0.30) 0.018 *
7–12 (grades 4–8) 1,602 18.73 (0.67) 18.31 (0.68) 18.77 (0.62) 0.696 *
13–15 (i.e. grades 1–3 of Dutch secondary school) 1,237 16.88 (0.86) 17.11 (0.71) 17.57 (0.80) 0.489 *
   Prevalence rates of CHP assessed psychosocial problems ***  
   Old Middle Young  
5–6 (grade 2) 9,172 297/2,990 (9.9%) 367/3,064 (12.0%) 422/3,118 (13.5%) <0.0001 (2x) **
Cross-section 1,435 54/485 (11.1%) 660/464 (12.9%) 74/486 (15.2%) 0.166/0.059**
RCT 7,737 243/2,507 (9.7%) 308/2,601 (11.8%) 347/2,633 (13.2%) <0.0001 (2x) **
7–12 (grades 4–8) 1,701 59/562 (10.5%) 61/535 (11.4%) 67/604 (11.1%) 0.888/0.751**
13–15 (i.e. grades 1–3 of Dutch secondary school) 1,344 52/415 (12.5%) 53/478 (11.1%) 50/451 (11.1%) 0.746/0.513 **
  1. Ages 5–6 concerns the combined cross-sectional and RCT data, the other two ages only concern the cross-sectional data. Data on the CBCL were lacking for 309 children in the cross-sectional study (these did not differ from the remaining regarding any of the variables indicated in Table 1). CBCL = Child Behavior Checklist. CHP = Child Health Professional (doctor or nurse).
  2. * Of Spearman correlation coefficient with relative age.
  3. ** Chi-square test and Mantel's test for linearity, respectively, for differences in prevalence rates by relative age.
  4. *** Number of children having a problem/total number of children.