Age, period, and cohort effects on kidney cancer mortality for European women. Age effects are expressed as rates per 1,000,000 person-years, and period and cohort effects as rate ratios (RR) with respect to their average. Osmond-Gardner (black lines) and Decarli-La Vecchia solutions (grey lines) were used to estimate period and cohort effects. The shaded areas are determined by curvatures and exclusive cohort or period slopes. See Methods for further details.