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Table 2 Univariable GEE results, region, age, gender, Epworth scores and bedtime habits.

From: "Sleepiness" is serious in adolescence: Two surveys of 3235 Canadian students

ESS Score Parameter Odds Ratio (OR) 95% Confidence Interval p value
Region 0.9625 0.6192 1.4962 0.8652
Age (years)* 1.0820 0.9435 1.2409 0.2594
Gender 1.3844 1.1560 1.6578 0.0004
Weeknight sleep hours** 0.5911 0.4951 0.7057 <0.0001
Consistent bedtime routine 0.3965 0.3332 0.4719 <0.0001
Up late to study 1.6393 1.2921 2.0797 <0.0001
Caffeine after 6 P.M. 1.3263 1.2537 1.4031 <0.0001
Smoke before bed 1.2295 0.9677 1.5621 0.0909
Eat before bed 1.0847 0.9976 1.1794 0.0569
  1. * OR calculated based on one year of age
  2. ** OR calculated based on one hour of weeknight sleep