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Table 2 Profiles of antenatal attendees, associated with HIV infection, rural Manyara and Singida within northern Tanzania, 2003–2004.

From: The silent HIV epidemic among pregnant women within rural Northern Tanzania

Characteristics N (%) HIV prevalence % (95%CI) Crude OR (95%CI) Age-adjusted OR (95%CI) Adjusted for other OR (95%CI)
Total 1296 26 (2.0: 1.34–2.97)    
Age groups
15–19 years 165 (12.7) 3.03 (1.12–7.30) 1.0 - 1.0
20–24 years 417 (32.2) 1.92 (0.89–3.40) 0.6 (0.20–1.94)   0.7 (0.20–2.47)
25–29 years 349 (26.9) 1.43 (0.53–3.51) 0.5 (0.13–1.63)   0.6 (0.14–2.30)
≥30 years 365 (28.2) 2.19 (1.02–4.44) 0.7 (0.23–2.23)   0.7 (0.20–2.78)
Residence
Remote rural 553 (42.7) 1.3 (0.56–2.71) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Rural 743 (57.3) 2.6 (1.59–4.04) 2.1 (0.85–4.90) 2.0 (0.84–4.87) 2.4 (0.95–6.18)
Marital status
Married 1183 (91.3) 1.9 (1.20–2.85) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Single/divorced/separated 113 (8.7) 3.5 (1.14–9.35) 1.9 (0.65–5.72) 1.8 (0.55–5.57) 1.3 (0.35–4.72)
Education (years)
None 349 (28.2) 3.24 (1.67–5.73) 1.0 1.0 1.0
1–6 years 174 (13.4) 1.15 (0.20–4.52) 0.4 (0.08–1.63) 0.4 (0.08–1.61) 0.3 (0.68–1.64)
7 years or more 773 (59.7) 1.71 (0.96–2.99) 0.5 (0.23–1.19) 0.5 (0.23–1.19) 0.5 (0.20–1.14)
Number of husbands/sexual partners†
1 only 1231 (95.0) 1.7 (1.11–2.69) 1.0 1.0 1.0
> 1 65 (5.0) 7.7 (2.87–17.75) 4.8(1.75–13.17) 5.4(1.91–15.43) 4.3 (1.42–12.77)
Age at first pregnancy β
< 18 years 158 (14.0) 4.4 (1.20–4.40) 1.0 1.0 1.0
≥18 years 974 (86.0) 1.5 (0.71–2.19) 0.3 (0.13–0.72) 0.3(0.12–0.79) 0.3 (0.13–0.89)
Use of contraceptives
No 1088 (84.0) 1.6 (0.94–2.54) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 208 (16.0) 4.3 (2.13–8.32) 2.8 (1.25–6.48) 2.9(1.27–6.61) 2.1 (0.79–5.71)
HIV related knowledge
No 1151(88.8) 1.91 (1.11–2.69) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 145 (11.2) 2.76 (0.09–5.43) 1.5 (0.49–4.29) 0.9 (0.91–1.04) 1.8 (0.59–5.56)
History of genital sore or foul genital discharge†
No 1135 (87.6) 1.7 (1.04–2.65) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 161 (12.4) 6.2 (3.19–11.44) 4.6 (2.06–10.39) 4.8(2.14–10.90) 6.8 (2.78–16.66)
Ever used condom
No 1233 (95.1) 1.9 (1.15–2.74) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 63 (4.9) 6.4 (2.05–16.25) 3.7 (1.25–11.18) 3.6 (1.18–11.07) 3.2 (0.87–12.06)
Ever used VCT services
No 891 (68.8) 1.3 (0.73–2.41) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Yes 405 (31.2) 3.5 (1.98–5.87) 2.6 (1.20–5.72) 2.6 (1.2–5.72) (0.72–4.43)
  1. β Analysed for those aged 20 ≥ years at the time of survey,
  2. † Variables included in the final model.
  3. Likelihood-ratio-test (assuming reduced model nested in full model): x2(5) = 4.52, P = 0.48
  4. Logistic model for HIV, goodness-of-fit test; x2(35) = 31.33, P = 0.64 and predictive power of the model = 78% [45]