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Table 2 Risk factors associated with injury (logistic) and number of injury visits (proportional odds model)

From: The regional differences in prevalence, medical expenditures and risk factors for injury in Taiwanese teenagers

Odds Ratio Estimation
Model Logistic    Proportional odds   
Effect Odds 95% CI   Odds 95% CI  
Intercept 1 ---    0.1 --  
Intercept 2 ---    0.2 --  
Area (vs Taiwan)       
Offshore 1.4 0.98 1.89 1.0 0.79 1.30
Mountain 1.7* 1.27 2.30 1.4 * 1.14 1.76
Gender (vs female)       
Male 1.3* 1.12 1.55 1.6* 1.41 1.82
Age (vs 18–21)       
12–14 0.6* 0.46 0.70 0.7* 0.57 0.79
15–17 0.8* 0.64 0.94 0.9* 0.75 1.00
Risk behavior (vs None)       
One 1.6* 1.30 2.06 1.3* 1.13 1.58
Two or more 1.3* 1.12 1.55 1.6* 1.41 1.82
Household Income (vs <29,999)       
30,000~49,999 1.0 0.76 1.22 1.0 0.79 1.14
50,000~69,999 1.1 0.89 1.41 1.1 0.88 1.26
70,000~99,999 1.1 0.86 1.46 1.0 0.82 1.24
>100,000 0.9 0.68 1.19 1.0 0.79 1.21
Seatbelt (vs Yes)       
No 0.9 0.79 1.10 1.0 0.92 1.19
Helmet (vs Yes)       
No 0.9 0.73 1.16 0.9 0.74 1.07
  1. *: p < 0.05
  2. Intercept 1: the highest group versus middle or the lowest group for people who lived in Taiwan, female, 18–21, and non-smokers
  3. Intercept 2: the highest or middle group versus the lowest group for people lived in Taiwan, female, 18–21, and non-smokers