Estimates of the annual burden of prominent childhood diseases and syndromes in the US [3, 5, 6, 8, 51–57]. Assumes 4 million live births per year and 20 million children <5 years of age. Childhood deaths were defined as those occurring <1 year after birth except for Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) (<5 years) and HIV/AIDS (<13 years). Where applicable, numbers represent means of published estimates. All estimates should be considered useful for rough comparisons only since surveillance methodology and diagnostic accuracy varied over different studies. CRS, congenital rubella syndrome.