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Table 3 Summary of SES – CVD life course studies using an early SES → risk factor design

From: Evaluating the evidence for models of life course socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review

1st Author, year & reference number
Study name
Early life and/or adult SES measures Variables adjusted for other than age CVD risk factor(s) measured
Arnesen 1985 [65]
Tromso Heart Study
Early-life: 4-level index of household economic conditions CVD RF's Cholesterol, SBP, glucose, BMI, smoking, more
Notkola 1985 [40]
East-West Study
Early-life: 5-level index using father's occup & farm size; Adult: occup (6 groups) None Smoking, cholesterol, SBP
Wadsworth 1985 [98]
Medical Research Council
National Survey of Health Study
Early-life: index of father's occup & parents' edu; Adult: occup (RG) & employment CVD RF's SBP, DBP
Braddon 1986 [71]
British 1946 Birth Cohort
Early-life: 2 social class indices of father's occup; Adult: occup (RG, 8 groups), edu (high/low) Adult SES, CVD RF's Obesity (BMI > 30.0 for men, > 29.1 for women)
Peck 1994 [66]
Swedish census cohort study
Early-life: father's occup (7 groups); Adult: occup (7 groups) None Smoking, physical activity
Blane 1996 [64]
Collaborative Study
Early-life: father's occup (RG, 4 groups); Adult: occup (RG, 4 groups) Adult SES DBP, physical activity, smoking, BMI, FEV1, more
Lynch 1997 [99]
Kuopio Study
Child: SES index (3 groups); Adolescent: edu (3 groups); Adult: occup, income, possessions, more Energy intake Smoking, drinking, obesity, physical activity, diet
Power 1997a [14]
1958 British Birth Cohort
Child: father's occup (RG, 4 groups); At 23 years: occup, edu; At 33 years: occup None BMI (obesity)
Power 1997b [90]
1958 British Birth Cohort
Child: father's occup (RG, 4 groups); At 23 years: occup, edu; At 33 years: occup None Smoking, BMI (obesity)
Davey Smith 1998 [44]
Collaborative Study
Early-life: father's occup (4 groups); Adult: occup (6 groups) None Smoking, DBP, cholesterol, BMI, FEV1
van de Mheen 1998 [63]
Longitudinal Study, Netherlands
Early-life: father's occup (6 groups); Adult: occup (6 groups) Adult SES BMI, smoking, alcohol, leisure physical activity
Brunner 1999 [67]
Whitehall II Study
Early-life: father's occup (RG, 4 groups); Adult: occup (Civil Service grade, 4 groups) Adult SES Smoking, activity, HDL, BMI, fibrinogen, more
Davey Smith 2002 [52]
Collaborative Study
Early-life: father's occup (mnl/non-mnl); Adult: occup (mnl/non-mnl) None Smoking, alcohol, area deprivation
Lawlor 2002 [68]
British Women's Heart Study
Early-life: father's occup (RG, 6 groups); Adult: current occup (RG, 6 groups) Adult SES Insulin resistance, SBP, cholesterol, BMI, smoking, triglycerides, alcohol, more
Poulton 2002 [73]
Dunedin Multidisciplinary Study
Early-life: parental occup (6 groups) at 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 & 15 years; Adult: current occup (3 groups) Adult SES BMI, WHR, SBP, smoking, alcohol, more
Lawlor 2003 [69]
British Women's Heart Study
Early-life: father's longest occup (mnl / non-mnl); Adult: longest occup (RG, 6 groups) CVD RF's HOMA, SBP, HDL, triglycerides
Parker 2003 [70]
Newcastle 1000 Families Study
Birth: father's occup & housing; 5 & 10 years: same, plus adverse life events; Adult: wage earner's occup None CMS, BMI, WHR, fasting insulin, triglycerides, HDL
  1. BMI = Body mass index; CMS = Central metabolic syndrome; DBP = Diastolic blood pressure; Edu = Education; FEV1 = Forced expiratory volume in 1 second; HOMA = Homeostasis model assessment score; Mnl = Manual occupational class; Non-mnl = Non-manual occupational class; Occup = Occupation; RF = Risk factor; RG = Registrar General's social class categories; SBP = Systolic blood pressure; WHR = Waist-to-hip ratio.