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Table 1 Disaster-related tasks and psychosocial events according to their potential psychotraumatic impact

From: Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design

  A1* (traumatic) Non-A1* (non-traumatic)
Tasks 1. Identification or recovery of victims from the rubble/transport or search for human remains
2. Rescue people
1. Fire-extinguishing
2. Clean up of destructed area
3. Transport of injured victims
4. Provide first aid/support injured victims or workers
5. Security tasks (surveillance, prevent burglary, keep disaster area free of bystanders)
6. Other tasks (e.g. traffic management)
7. Sort wreckage in hangar (at Schiphol Airport)
8. Other tasks in hangar in the presence of the wreckage
9. Transport of wreckage
10. Burning of contaminated soil remnants (from disaster site)
Psychosocial events 1. Having been in life-threatening danger during disaster
2. Personal injuries due to disaster
3. Witnessed dead or injured victims
4. Having been in or near one of the destroyed buildings at the time of the disaster
5. Immediate family members (partner, children) died / in life-threatening danger / injured due to the disaster
6. Other family members died due to the disaster
1. Saw the aircraft crash / saw or heard the aircraft when it crashed
2. Felt or heard the impact of the crash
3. Saw the fire
4. Saw the disaster site during the first hours after the crash/when the wreckage was still there
5. Other family members in life-threatening danger or injured due to the disaster
6. Friends or acquaintances died, injured or in life-threatening danger due to the disaster
7. Apartment of other family members, friends, or acquaintances damaged due to the disaster
8. Lived in the affected suburb of Amsterdam (Bijlmermeer) at the time of the disaster
9. Visited the hangar where the wreckage was kept
  1. *A1 and non-A1 = items with a mean score of ≥ 3 or <3, respectively, on a 4 point Likert Scale indicating the likelihood for an item to meet criterion A1 for post-traumatic stress disorder (from 'very unlikely' [=1] to 'very likely' [=4]) (see Methods).