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Table 4 Results of multilevel analysis for health risk behaviour in Japanese women: odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of individual and regional variables.

From: Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

Variable Current smoking (N = 19816) Excess alcohol consumption (N = 18922) Physical inactivity (N = 20728) Poor dietary habits (N = 20728) Stress (N = 19817) Non-attendance of check-up (N = 20148)
  OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Individual             
   Age (10 years) 0.76 (0.73, 0.79) *** 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) 0.70 (0.65, 0.75)*** 0.70 (0.68, 0.73) *** 0.93 (0.90, 0.96) ** 0.65 (0.63, 0.68) ***
   Marital status             
Married 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Single 1.00 (0.89, 1.14) 1.00 (0.82, 1.21) 0.73 (0.65, 0.81) ** 1.12 (1.01, 1.24) * 0.73 (0.66, 0.80) *** 0.63 (0.57, 0.70) ***
Widow 1.07 (0.82, 1.40) 0.76 (0.49, 1.19) 1.11 (0.91, 1.35) 1.09 (0.87, 1.36) 0.92 (0.76, 1.11) 0.82 (0.67, 1.02)
Divorced 2.67 (2.30, 3.09) *** 1.68 (1.33, 2.11) *** 1.09 (0.93, 1.27) 1.23 (1.06, 1.42) ** 1.16 (1.01, 1.34) * 0.88 (0.76, 1.02)
   Occupation a             
Housework 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Profession 1.08 (0.92, 1.25) 1.34 (1.06, 1.70) * 1.01 (0.90, 1.14) 1.03 (0.91, 1.17) 1.32 (1.18, 1.47) *** 0.26 (0.24, 0.30) ***
Clerk 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) 1.46 (1.19, 1.80) *** 1.15 (1.03, 1.28) ** 1.06 (0.95, 1.19) 1.20 (1.09, 1.33) *** 0.28 (0.25, 0.31) ***
Sales work 1.57 (1.35, 1.82) *** 1.79 (1.42, 2.25) *** 1.11 (0.98, 1.25) 1.43 (1.26, 1.62) *** 1.19 (1.06, 1.34) ** 0.48 (0.43, 0.54) ***
Service work 1.58 (1.37, 1.81) *** 1.91 (1.55, 2.36) *** 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) 1.37 (1.22, 1.54) *** 1.14 (1.03, 1.28) * 0.42 (0.37, 0.47) ***
Agriculture 0.70 (0.52, 0.96) * 1.21 (0.79, 1.86) 0.99 (0.81, 1.22) 1.06 (0.85, 1.32) 0.84 (0.70, 1.02) 0.56 (0.46, 0.68) ***
Labour 1.10 (0.94, 1.28) 1.07 (0.83, 1.38) 1.35 (1.20, 1.52) *** 1.38 (1.23, 1.56) *** 1.06 (0.95, 1.18) 0.36 (0.32, 0.40) ***
Others 1.30 (1.13, 1.48) *** 1.34 (1.08, 1.66) *** 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 1.22 (1.09, 1.36) ** 1.06 (0.96, 1.17) 0.53 (0.48, 0.59) ***
   Income quintile             
5th (highest) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
4th 1.12 (0.97, 1.29) 0.96 (0.78, 1.17) 1.06 (0.96, 1.17) 1.18 (1.06, 1.32) ** 1.06 (0.97, 1.17) 1.21 (1.09, 1.34) ***
3rd 1.34 (1.16, 1.54) ** 1.04 (0.85, 1.27) 1.11 (1.00, 1.22) * 1.24 (1.11, 1.39) *** 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) * 1.42 (1.29, 1.58) ***
2nd 1.66 (1.44, 1.90) *** 1.06 (0.86, 1.29) 1.21 (1.09, 1.34) *** 1.32 (1.19, 1.48) *** 1.14 (1.04, 1.26) ** 1.75 (1.58, 1.93) ***
1st (lowest) 2.03 (1.76, 2.33) *** 1.28 (1.04, 1.56) * 1.24 (1.12, 1.38) *** 1.64 (1.47, 1.83) *** 1.26 (1.14, 1.39) *** 2.23 (2.01, 2.47) ***
Region             
   Per capita income (million yen) 1.93 (1.64, 2.28) ** 1.49 (1.05, 2.10) * 0.76 (0.64, 0.90) ** 1.12 (0.90, 1.40) 1.43 (1.23, 1.67) *** 1.75 (1.13, 2.27) ***
   Unemployment (%) 1.08 (0.99, 1.18) 1.10 (1.03, 1.19) * 0.95 (0.92, 0.99) ** 1.03 (0.98, 1.08) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.09 (1.03, 1.15) **
Regional random variance (SE) b 0.118 (0.026) *** 0.043 (0.019) * 0.009 (0.004) * 0.032 (0.009) *** 0.007 (0.004) 0.045 (0.011) ***
-2 log likelihood 13564.2 -2382.9 23140.5 23489.1 26988.4 23946.7
Intra-regional correlation (%) 26.1 11.4 2.6 8.8 2.1 11.8
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  2. a Profession = professional and technical workers; clerk = clerical and related workers; agriculture = agriculture, foresty and fishery workers; labour = craftmen, mining, production process and construction workers, and labourers.
  3. b Variance at the regional level in a logit model