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Table 3 Results of multilevel analysis for health risk behaviour in Japanese men: odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of individual and regional variables.

From: Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

Variable Current smoking (N = 19816) Excess alcohol consumption (N = 18922) Physical inactivity (N = 20728) Poor dietary habits (N = 20728) Stress (N = 19817) Non-attendance of health check-up (N = 20148)
Individual OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI)
Individual             
   Age (10 years) 0.81 (0.78, 0.84) *** 1.17 (1.12, 1.21) *** 0.93 (0.90, 0.97) * 0.71 (0.69, 0.74) *** 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) 0.88 (0.84, 0.91) ***
   Marital status             
Married 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Single 0.72 (0.66, 0.78) *** 0.62 (0.56, 0.68) *** 0.98 (0.90, 1.07) 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) 0.82 (0.75, 0.88) *** 1.73 (1.58, 1.89) ***
Widow 1.35 (0.93, 1.95) 0.83 (0.55, 1.25) 1.08 (0.72, 1.62) 1.28 (0.87, 1.87) 0.97 (0.67, 1.41) 1.11 (0.71, 1.74)
Divorced 1.89 (1.55, 2.31) *** 1.10 (0.91, 1.33) 1.14 (0.93, 1.40) 1.28 (1.06, 1.53) * 1.06 (0.88, 1.27) 1.75 (1.43, 2.12) ***
   Occupation a             
Profession 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
Manager 1.14 (1.01, 1.28) * 1.07 (0.93, 1.22) 0.94 (0.83, 1.07) 0.92 (0.81, 1.05) 1.03 (0.92, 1.16) 0.78 (0.67, 0.92) ***
Clerk 0.94 (0.84, 1.06) 0.97 (0.85, 1.11) 1.06 (0.93, 1.20) 0.96 (0.85, 1.09) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 0.59 (0.50, 0.69) ***
Sales work 1.31 (1.17, 1.47) *** 1.18 (1.04, 1.34) * 1.11 (0.98, 1.25) 1.06 (0.94, 1.19) 1.01 (0.90, 1.13) 1.68 (1.47, 1.91) ***
Service work 1.26 (1.12, 1.42) *** 1.13 (0.98, 1.29) 1.20 (1.05, 1.37) * 1.19 (1.06, 1.35) ** 1.07 (0.95, 1.21) 1.34 (1.17, 1.54) ***
Agriculture 1.16 (0.97, 1.39) 1.20 (0.99, 1.46) 1.03 (0.85, 1.25) 0.93 (0.77, 1.11) 0.73 (0.61, 0.87) *** 1.84 (1.52, 2.24) ***
Trasnport 1.61 (1.39, 1.87) *** 1.29 (1.10, 1.51) ** 1.19 (1.01, 1.39) * 1.35 (1.16, 1.56) *** 0.92 (0.80, 1.06) 1.08 (0.91, 1.28)
Labour 1.49 (1.36, 1.63) *** 1.26 (1.14, 1.39) *** 1.13 (1.03, 1.25) * 1.12 (1.02, 1.23) * 0.89 (0.81, 0.98) * 1.10 (0.99, 1.22)
Others 1.08 (0.97, 1.20) 0.91 (0.80, 1.03) 0.90 (0.80, 1.01) 1.00 (0.89, 1.11) 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 1.33 (1.17, 1.50) ***
   Income quintile             
5th (highest) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
4th 1.11 (1.01, 1.21) * 0.96 (0.87, 1.06) 1.17 (1.06, 1.29) *** 1.08 (0.98, 1.19) 1.10 (1.00, 1.20) * 1.10 (0.98, 1.24)
3rd 1.12 (1.02, 1.23) * 0.99 (0.89, 1.10) 1.31 (1.19, 1.45) *** 1.16 (1.06, 1.28) ** 1.07 (0.97, 1.17) 1.34 (1.19, 1.50) ***
2nd 1.30 (1.18, 1.43) *** 1.03 (0.92, 1.14) 1.43 (1.29, 1.58) *** 1.26 (1.14, 1.39) *** 1.09 (0.99, 1.20) 1.99 (1.77, 2.23) ***
1st (lowest) 1.29 (1.17, 1.43) *** 0.99 (0.89, 1.10) 1.42 (1.28, 1.58) *** 1.28 (1.16, 1.42) *** 1.15 (1.05, 1.27) ** 3.14 (2.80, 3.52) ***
Region             
   Per capita income (million yen) 0.89 (0.71, 1.11) 1.03 (0.82, 1.29) 1.05 (0.92, 1.20) 1.09 (0.94, 1.26) 1.44 (1.24, 1.67) *** 1.42 (1.15, 1.76) **
   Unemployment (%) 1.06 (1.01, 1.12) * 1.07 (1.01, 1.13) * 0.99 (0.96, 1.02) 1.02 (0.99, 1.06) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.11 (1.05, 1.16) **
Regional random variance (SE) b 0.029 (0.008) *** 0.028 (0.008) *** 0.000 (0.000) 0.004 (0.003) 0.005 (0.003) 0.029 (0.009) **
-2 log likelihood 26317.0 22089.1 23313.1 25487.2 26207.1 19463.1
Intra-regional correlation (%) 8.0 7.7 0.0 1.1 1.6 8.0
  1. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  2. a Profession = professional and technical workers; manager = managers and officials; clerk = clerical and related workers; agriculture = agriculture, forestiry and fishery workers; transport = workers in transport and communications; labour = craftmen, mining, production process, and construction workers and labourers.
  3. b Variance at the regional level in a logit model