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Table 2 Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of frequent mental distress (FMD), stratified by metropolitan status

From: Rural residence is not a risk factor for frequent mental distress: a behavioral risk factor surveillance survey

Risk variable Metropolitan-Central City N = 3,505 P value Metropolitan-Suburban N = 1,251 P value Non-Metropolitan N = 1,001 P value
  AOR * (95% CI)   AOR * (95% CI)   AOR * (95% CI)  
Age group       
   18–24 Reference   Reference   Reference  
   25–34 1.25 (0.77–2.03) 0.366 0.40 (0.19–0.85) 0.016 0.94 (0.32–2.72) 0.904
   35–44 1.40 (0.85–2.30) 0.186 0.63 (0.28–1.40) 0.256 1.73 (0.64–4.67) 0.283
   45–54 1.42 (0.87–2.30) 0.157 0.96 (0.46–1.98) 0.904 1.49 (0.50–4.46) 0.476
   55–64 1.16 (0.65–2.09) 0.614 0.59 (0.25–1.37) 0.218 0.93 (0.31–2.77) 0.892
   65+ 0.60 (0.33–1.08) 0.091 0.26 (0.11–0.59) 0.001 0.77 (0.29–2.02) 0.586
Race/ethnicity       
   Non-Hispanic white Reference   Reference   Reference  
   Hispanic 0.53 (0.37–0.77) 0.001 0.49 (0.23–1.03) 0.058 0.88 (0.41–1.88) 0.738
   Non-Hispanic Black 0.90 (0.59–1.39) 0.648 0.88 (0.31–2.46) 0.804 0.90 (0.33–2.50) 0.845
   Other 1.23 (0.62–2.43) 0.547 0.81 (0.25–2.63) 0.725 1.57 (0.37–6.65) 0.540
Sex       
   Female Reference   Reference   Reference  
   Male 0.50 (0.37–0.68) <0.001 0.73 (0.47–1.14) 0.171 0.77 (0.44–1.36) 0.368
Marital status       
   Single/never married Reference   Reference   Reference  
   Married 0.56 (0.43–0.74) <0.001 0.81 (0.50–1.30) 0.384 0.98 (0.56–1.70) 0.931
Educational status       
   < high school degree Reference   Reference   Reference  
   high school degree 0.75 (0.51–1.12) 0.165 0.85 (0.44–1.61) 0.623 0.90 (0.42–1.96) 0.800
   some college 0.59 (0.38–0.92) 0.018 0.36 (0.17–0.77) 0.008 0.71 (0.31–1.62) 0.420
   College graduate 0.42 (0.26–0.67) <0.001 0.41 (0.20–0.83) 0.013 0.15 (0.05–0.50) 0.002
Household income       
   <$25,000 Reference   Reference   Reference  
   $25,000–$75,000 0.53 (0.38–0.74) <0.001 0.56 (0.32–0.97) 0.040 0.34 (0.17–0.71) 0.004
   ≥$75,000 0.51 (0.33–0.80) 0.003 0.36 (0.16–0.82) 0.016 0.94 (0.38–2.42) 0.905
   Income missing 0.45 (0.28–0.71) 0.001 0.62 (0.27–1.39) 0.245 0.41 (0.18–0.96) 0.040
Body mass index       
   Obese 1.96 (1.37–2.80) <0.001 1.04 (0.61–1.79) 0.881 1.28 (0.58–2.87) 0.542
   Overweight 1.19 (0.82–1.72) 0.357 1.16 (0.70–1.92) 0.562 1.69 (0.78–3.63) 0.181
   Normal Reference   Reference   Reference  
   Underweight 2.98 (1.54–5.78) 0.001 1.26 (0.37–4.29) 0.710 11.94 (3.66–38.97) <0.001
   BMI missing 0.22 (0.67–2.23) 0.513 0.35 (0.11–1.16) 0.087 0.74 (0.19–2.83) 0.656
  1. CI = confidence interval.
  2. * Adjusted for all other variables in Table 1.