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Table 3 Attitudes and beliefs related to waterpipe quitting among café customers and university students

From: Comparison of patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe between beginning and established smokers

  Beginners (students, n = 86) n (%) Established (customers, n = 268) n (%)
Belief can quit waterpipe any time 77 (89.5) 231 (86.5)
Will to quit waterpipe 35 (40.7) 76 (28.4)*
Last year quit attempt (waterpipe) 23 (65.7) 45 (59.2)
Belief can quit cigarettes anytime 19 (46.3) 36 (50.7)
Will to quit cigarettes 29 (70.7) 45 (63.4)
Last year quit attempt (cigarettes) 26 (89.7) 32 (71.1)
Main motivation for quitting waterpipe**   
Health 33 (91.6) 79 (103.8)
Cost 3 (8.7) 3 (6.5)
Other 3 (8.6) 4 (5.3)
Main challenge for quitting waterpipe   
Friends 10 (28.6) 6 (7.9)*
Addiction and habit 6 (17.1) 5 (6.6)
Boredom and free time 3 (8.6) 7 (9.2)
No challenge 13 (37.1) 47 (61.8)*
Other or no specific 3 (8.6) 11 (14.5)
Main health hazard of waterpipe   
Cardiovascular effects 5 (5.8) 25 (9.4)
Respiratory effects 41 (47.7) 98 (36.7)*
Cancer 25 (29.1) 96 (36.0)
Other bodily effects 11 (12.7) 13 (4.8)*
None, don't know, none specific 4 (4.7) 35 (13.0)*
Belief about the addictive effects of waterpipe compared to cigarettes   
Cigarettes are more addictive 77 (89.5) 221 (82.8)
Equally addictive 7 (8.1) 27 (10.1)
Waterpipe is more addictive 2 (2.3) 19 (7.1)
Belief about harmful effects of waterpipe compared to cigarettes   
Cigarettes are more harmful 32 (37.6) 124 (46.4)
Equally harmful 11 (12.9) 49 (18.4)
Waterpipe is more harmful 42 (49.4) 94 (35.2)*
  1. * p < 0.05 using the Chi2 test ** Multiple responses were allowed (percentages add to more than 100)