Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Waterpipe smoking patterns among café customers (established) compared to those of university students (beginners)

From: Comparison of patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe between beginning and established smokers

  Beginners (students, n = 86) n (%) Established (customers, n = 268) n (%)
Frequency of waterpipe smoking   
Daily 5 (5.8) 64 (24.0%)*
Occasionally 81 (94.2) 203 (76.0)*
First experience with waterpipe smoking   
   Alone 2 (2.3) 25 (9.3)*
   With friend 69 (80.2) 165 (61.6)*
   With family 15 (17.4) 75 (28.0)
Current use of waterpipe   
   Alone 1 (1.2) 31 (11.6)*
   With friends 69 (80.2) 175 (65.3)*
   With family 16 (18.6) 62 (23.2)*
Place of usual waterpipe smoking   
   Home 48 (55.8) 51 (19.2)*
   Café/restaurant 24 (27.9) 207 (77.8)*
   Other or no particular place 14 (16.3) 8 (3.0)*
Share the same waterpipe 83 (96.5) 117 (43.8)*
Individual most commonly waterpipe is shared with   
   Friend 78 (94.0) 49 (41.9)*
   Family 5 (6.0) 66 (56.4)*
Current cigarette smoking 41 (47.7) 71 (26.5)*
Ex-cigarette smoking 8 (17.8) 24 (12.2)
Seasonal increase in waterpipe smoking frequency 60 (69.8) 131 (48.9)*
Period of increased waterpipe smoking frequency   
   Holiday 15 (25.0) 25 (19.1)
   Summer 31 (51.7) 91 (69.5)*
   Stress/exams 12 (20.0) 5 (3.8)*
   Other or no specific answer 2 (3.3) 10 (7.7)
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Age of initiation of waterpipe smoking (years) 19.6 ± 2.6 24.3 ± 8.3*
Age of initiation of daily waterpipe smoking (years) 21.8 ± 3.6 24.7 ± 8.8
Duration of waterpipe smoking (years) 2.7 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 6.2*
Monthly cost of waterpipe smoking 680 ± 507 2366 ± 1918*
Age of initiation of daily cigarette smoking (years) 18.8 ± 2.4 19.1 ± 4.1
  1. * p < 0.05 using the Chi2 test for dichotomous variables, and Student's t test or the Mann-Whitney test as appropriate for continuous variables (comparison is always between beginners and established smokers).