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Table 1 Characteristics of low-income pregnant women in a validation study of the Harvard Service FFQ (HSFFQ)

From: Use of a food frequency questionnaire in American Indian and Caucasian pregnant women: a validation study

Characteristic Phase 1: Three week-12 recalls + HSFFQ2 (n = 279) a Phase 2: Three week-28 recalls + HSFFQ3 (n = 242) b Complete study: Three week-12 recalls + three week-28 recalls + HSFFQ2 + HSFFQ3 (n = 237) c
Mean age (range) 24 (16–40) 24 (16–39) 24 (16–39)
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Ethnicity    
   American Indian 104 (37) 88 (36) 82 (35)
   Caucasian 175 (63) 154 (64) 154 (65) d
Percent poverty level    
   ≤ 100% 176 (63) 151 (62) 147 (62)
   101 to 133% 44 (16) 41 (17) 41 (17)
   134 to 185% 56 (20) e 50 (21) 49 (21)
Number of previous livebirths    
   0 120 (43) 100 (41) 98 (41)
   1 78 (28) 69 (29) 67 (28)
   2 46 (16) 43 (18) 43 (18)
   3 23 (8) 22 (9) 22 (9)
   ≥ 4 11 (4) f 8 (3) 7 (3)
  1. Some percentages do not sum to exactly 100% due to rounding
  2. a Excluded if calories > 4500 (n = 3) or age < 16 (n = 1) on the HSFFQ2
  3. b Excluded if calories > 4500 (n = 2) or age < 16 (n = 2) on the HSFFQ3
  4. c Excluded if calories > 4500 (n = 5) or age < 16 (n = 3) on the HSFFQ2 or HSFFQ3
  5. d Excluding 1 participant with discordant ethnicity reported on the HSFFQ2 and HSFFQ3
  6. e Percent poverty level missing for 3 participants
  7. f Number previous livebirths missing for 1 participant