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Table 1 Characteristics of studies. Characteristics of the studies and reports deriving national MMR estimates by region.

From: National estimates for maternal mortality: an analysis based on the WHO systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity

Variables Africa Asia Latin America & Caribbean Developed Regions Total
TOTAL 35 36 27 43 141
Study design/method
   Census 0 1 0 0 1
   Cross sectional (Vital registration) 3 18 16 42 79
   Direct sisterhood method 22 7 5 0 34
   Indirect sisterhood method 6 2 3 0 11
   Direct survey 1 2 0 0 3
   RAMOSa 3 5 2 0 10
   CEMDb 0 1 1 1 3
Sampling
   Random 29 11 8 0 48
   All women 6 25 19 43 93
Data reported
   Estimates 28 12 8 1 49
   Actual counts 6 23 18 42 89
   Mixed/Other 1 1 1 0 3
Information on lost to follow-up/non-respondents
   Yes 29 12 8 1 50
   No 6 24 19 42 91
Maternal death definition
   ICD9=ICD10 up to 42 days pp 4 23 15 41 83
   ICD10 up to 60 days pp. 1 0 1 0 2
   ICD10 up to 1 year pp. 1 0 0 1 2
   Preg-related up to 42 days pp. 5 2 2 0 9
   Preg-related up to 60 days pp. 22 6 5 0 33
   No Maternal Death Definition 2 5 4 1 12
Maternal deaths confirmed
   Confidential enquiry 1 0 3 1 5
   Verbal autopsy 1 4 1 0 6
   Confidential enquiry & verbal aut. 3 1 1 0 5
   Multiple sources 0 1 0 0 1
   Unknown 1 1 0 0 2
   Not applicablec 27 8 7 0 42
   No confirmation maternal deaths 2 21 15 42 80
Special efforts to capture all maternal deaths
   Multiple data sources 2 3 3 2 10
   Identifying deaths of WRAd 2 2 0 0 4
   Special enquiry/interview 29 10 8 0 47
   Yes but unspecified 0 0 1 0 1
   No 2 21 15 41 79
  1. aRAMOS: Reproductive Age Mortality Studies
  2. bCEMD: Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths
  3. cIncludes studies using a pregnancy-related death definition for which ascertainment of cause of death does not apply.
  4. dWRA: Women in reproductive age.
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