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Table 3 Summary of major cost, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results for the strategies assessed, 2004–2023*

From: Cost, affordability and cost-effectiveness of strategies to control tuberculosis in countries with high HIV prevalence

Total annual costs (US$ millions)
Intervention TB Treatment AIDS Treatment, excluding ART ART or TLTI Total Annual Costs Total Incremental Cost vs. Baseline Scenario
Baseline scenario† 18.5 63.7 0.0 82.2 N/A
Improve TB Detection Rate 27.4 66.7 0.0 94.1 11.9
Improve TB Cure Rate 25.1 64.7 0.0 89.8 7.6
Improve TB Cure Rate and Case Detection Rate 26.9 67.3 0.0 94.2 12.0
TLTI, 6 months 18.3 63.7 0.7 82.8 0.6
TLTI, Lifetime 18.0 63.6 8.0 89.7 7.5
ART, 50% dropout rate 18.2 62.1 153 233 151
ART, 20% dropout rate 17.5 58.8 348 424 342
ART, 5% dropout rate 16.2 52.1 656 725 642
ART to TB patients 18.4 62.5 71.7 152.6 70.5
Total annual effects‡
Intervention DALYs Gained vs. Baseline Scenario Deaths Averted vs. Baseline Scenario TB Cases Averted vs. Baseline Scenario
Baseline scenario† N/A N/A N/A
Improve TB Detection Rate 551,184 26,015 59,436
Improve TB Cure Rate 220,939 10,087 43,378
Improve TB Cure Rate and Case Detection Rate 676,748 31,769 97,795
TLTI, 6 months 7,366 549 2,119
TLTI, Lifetime 20,178 2,075 5,480
ART, 50% dropout rate 585,232 7,390 4,025
ART, 20% dropout rate 834,071 23,794 12,183
ART, 5% dropout rate 1,205,912 56,872 27,446
ART to TB patients 152,604 5,089 1,126
Cost-effectiveness (US$)§
Intervention Cost per DALY Gained Cost per Death Averted Cost per TB Case Averted
Baseline scenario† N/A N/A N/A
Improve TB Detection Rate 21.6 458 201
Improve TB Cure Rate 34.3 752 175
Improve TB Cure Rate and Case Detection Rate 17.8 379 123
TLTI, 6 months 84.7 1,136 294
TLTI, Lifetime 373 3,630 1,374
ART, 50% dropout rate 258 20,461 37,569
ART, 20% dropout rate 410 14,370 28,064
ART, 5% dropout rate 533 11,294 23,403
ART to TB patients 462 13,846 62,578
  1. *Total incremental costs and total incremental effects are average figures across the 20 year period that was considered. Trends over time are shown in the figures.
  2. † The baseline scenario is defined as TB treatment only, with a case detection rate of 50% and a cure rate of 70%, and no TLTI or ART.
  3. ‡ In the baseline scenario there are an estimated 774,000 deaths per year and an estimated 225,000 TB cases per year
  4. §Calculated as incremental costs divided by total incremental effects. Numbers are sometimes different to the total costs divided by total effects shown in the table due to rounding.