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Table 3 Summary statistics for explanatory variables and univariate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for presentation with skin infections: Confidence intervals adjusted for clustering of children in dwellings.

From: Skin infection, housing and social circumstances in children living in remote Indigenous communities: testing conceptual and methodological approaches

  Community A (NA = 100) Community B (NB = 38) All children (N = 138) Univariate incidence rate ratios
  n (%) n (%) n (%) IRR (95% CI)
No skin infections 41 (41.0) 13 (34.1) 54 (39.1) na
2 or more skin infections 37 (37.0) 10 (26.3) 47 (34.0) na
5 or more skin infections 12 (12.0) 2 (5.3) 14 (10.0) na
Total number of skin infections 162 50 212 na
Median skin infections per child (range) 1 (0 – 8) 1 (0 – 9) 1 (0 – 9) na
Skin incidence rate (person-years) 1.84 1.47 1.74 na
Primary explanatory variables     
Dwelling facilities required to:     
   - wash children not functioning 35 (35.0) 3 (7.9) ** 38 (27.5) 1.23 (0.75 – 1.99)
   - wash clothes not functioning 51 (51.0) 10 (26.3) * 61 (44.2) 1.40 (0.83 – 2.36)
   - remove human faeces not functioning 42 (42.0) 8 (21.1) * 50 (36.2) 1.68 (0.99 – 2.87)
Combined HLPs 64 (64.0) 15 (39.5) * 79 (57.2) 1.96 (1.25 – 3.07)
Concrete/other floor material (no tiles) 53 (53.0) 2 (5.3) ** 98 (71.0) 1.26 (0.74 – 2.14)
Dwelling built pre 1980 15 (15.0) 14 (36.8) ** 29 (21.0) 1.23 (0.68 – 2.25)
Secondary explanatory variables     
   Community A - - 100 (72.5) 1.27 (0.74 – 2.20)
   Community B (reference category) - - 38 (27.5) 1.00
Health software     
   Household cleaning equipment missing 79 (79.0) 6 (15.8) ** 87 (63.0) 1.59 (0.90 – 2.80)
   No soap in bathroom 57 (57.0) 5 (13.2) ** 62 (44.9) 1.23 (0.72 – 2.09)
Contaminants     
   Internal contaminants present 79 (79.0) 35 (92.1) 114 (82.6) 0.57 (0.28 – 1.14)
   External contaminants present 82 (82.0) 36 (94.7) 118 (85.5) 1.66 (0.83 – 3.31)
Child and carer socio-demographic factors     
   Child less than 3 years 49 (49.0) 19 (50.0) 68 (49.3) 1.95 (1.40 – 2.72)
   Child sex (male) 52 (52.0) 17 (44.7) 69 (50.0) 0.86 (0.52 – 1.43)
   Child mobility (high) 7 (7.0) 5 (13.2) 12 (8.7) 0.78 (0.42 – 1.47)
   Carer age < 20 years 13 (13.0) 3 (7.9) 16 (11.6) 3.20 (2.18 – 4.71)
   Carer 20 years to LT 35 years 77 (77.0) 29 (76.3) 106 (76.8) 1.00
   Carer 35 years or more 10 (10.0) 6 (15.8) 16 (11.6) 1.79 (1.06 – 3.04)
   Low family income (≤ $935 or median) 58 (58.0) 12 (31.6) ** 70 (51.1) 2.10 (1.30 – 3.40)
   Carer unemployed 76 (76.0) 9 (23.7) ** 85 (61.6) 1.25 (0.78 – 1.99)
   Carer highest level of education     
Years 11 or 12 11 (11.0) 6 (15.8) 17 (12.3) 1.00
Years 9 or 10 23 (23.0) 21 (55.3) ** 44 (31.9) 1.26 (0.74 – 2.16)
Year 8 or below 66 (66.0) 11 (29.0) ** 77 (55.8) 1.92 (1.19 – 3.12)
Household composition variables     
   Four or more children < 7 yrs in dwelling 29 (29.0) 8 (21.1) 37 (26.8) 1.54 (0.84 – 2.82)
   Three carers in dwelling 12 (12.0) 4 (10.5) 16 (11.6) 2.26 (1.24 – 4.13)
   Visitors present in dwelling 20 (20.0) 12 (31.6) 31 (22.6) 0.79 (0.49 – 1.28)
   Residents per bedroom     
Lowest (1.33–2.00) 9 (9.0) 10 (26.3) * 19 (13.8) 1.00
Middle (2.33–4.00) 57 (57.0) 16 (42.1) 73 (52.9) 1.51 (0.59 – 3.86)
Highest (4.33–8.33) 34 (34.0) 12 (31.6) 46 (33.3) 1.11 (0.44 – 2.79)
  1. Difference between two communities: * = p ≤ 0.05; ** = p ≤ 0.01.