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Table 1 The pressures and costs from traffic (composite+car) in the Helsinki metropolitan area.

From: An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation

Pressure Private cars only 25% composite traffic 50% composite traffic 75% composite traffic 100% composite traffic
Fraction of composite trips without transfer (%) - 8.7 19.5 28.1 35.0
Vehicles needed (number) 68000 60700 49300 37000 19700
Parking spaces needed (number) 91900 81900 66800 49600 25200
Average vehicle flow on the 30 most busy roads (vehicles/h at 8.00–9.00 AM) 5150 4350 3440 2380 1220
Injuries due to accidents (cases per year) 565 (537–593) 532 (498–566) 483 (425–543) 429 (336–524) 367 (233–504)
Deaths due to accidents (cases per year) 13.0 (9.0–17.5) 12.2 (8.4–16.3) 11.1 (7.52–15.2) 9.89 (6.35–14.0) 8.46 (4.66–12.9)
Deaths due to fine particles (cases per year) 95.4 (0.3–292) 96.7 (0.6–284) 87.6 (0.6–253) 75.8 (0.5–215) 61.0 (0.4–179)
Fine particle (<2.5 μm of diameter) emissions (kg per day) 500 (158–842) 507 (239–774) 459 (258–659) 397 (242–551) 320 (167–473)
Carbon dioxide emissions (ton per day) 1790 (1660–1910) 1580 (1480–1670) 1280 (1210–1350) 953 (907–999) 574 (535–613)
Driver salaries (thousand € per day) 0 599 (422–776) 947 (667–1230) 1260 (888–1630) 1560 (1100–2020)
Vehicle costs (capital+operational) (thousand € per day) 2750 (1930–3930) 2340 (1710–3230) 1820 (1380–2430) 1270 (1030–1590) 667 (582–753)
Time cost due to delay (thousand € per day) 365 (20.7–994) 308 (77.8–664) 233 (73.8–393) 328 (104–553) 424 (134–713)
Average car trip cost to passenger (€ per trip) 2.88 (1.74–4.19) 2.76 (1.65–4.02) 2.66 (1.57–3.94) 2.76 (1.62–4.09) -
Average composite trip cost to passenger (€ per trip) - 3.70 (3.00–4.42) 2.91 (2.38–3.43) 2.68 (2.19–3.15) 2.54 (2.08–2.99)
  1. Mean (90% confidence interval when applicable). The number of vehicles and parking places is theoretical and involves the modelled trips only; a car owner may need the car for trips outside Helsinki even if he/she uses composite traffic. The true number of cars in the area was 346 400 in 2001 [14]. Decreased congestion reduces the costs of private cars. This feedback phenomenon is partly taken into account in time costs. The current ticket prices for buses, subway, and trams are 1.70 € per trip in Helsinki and 2.90 € per trip between communities in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Note that the car trip and composite trip costs include time costs due to delay (rush, transfers). If a passenger requires a trip without a transfer, the additional price to him/her will be 3 – 6 € per trip during daytime. This cost is due to reduced efficiency in trip aggregation.