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Table 4 Relationship between socio-demographic, lifestyle and health seeking factors to Health service delay. Both unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios are shown (n = 231)

From: Patient and health service delay in pulmonary tuberculosis patients attending a referral hospital: a cross-sectional study

Variable n % Health service delay >4 weeks Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) n* Adjusted odds ratio† (95% CI)
Age 18–40, y 205 81.0 0.77 (0.25–2.37)   NA
Male 132 81.1 0.95 (0.49–1.86)   NA
Hospitalised 59 86.4 1.63 (0.71–3.75)   NA
Marital status separated/single 125 82.1 1.09 (0.56–2.12)   NA
Post primary education level 92 83.5 1.40 (0.72–2.73)   NA
Single Household person 24 66.7 0.41 (0.16–1.03) 23 0.31 (0.11–0.84)‡
Daily Alcohol consumption 38 85.7 1.44 (0.53–3.97)   NA
Subsistence farming 28 89.3 2.05 (0.59–7.11)   NA
Perceived smoking as cause of TB 34 87.5 1.62 (0.20–13.56)   NA
>2 Health seeking encounters per month 76 89.5 2.48 (1.09–5.65) 72 2.74 (1.10–6.83)‡
Medical expenditure on TB related symptoms (>29 US $) 60 88.3 2.02 (0.85–4.82) 60 3.88 (1.19–12.62) ‡
Hemoptysis at onset 33 93.9 4.05 (1.02–15.90)   NA
  1. *Number included in forward stepwise logistic regression method.
  2. †Odds ratios for the variables appearing at the final step of forward stepwise selection.
  3. ‡P < 0.05; CI indicates confidence interval; NA not applicable.