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Table 2 Included studies

From: Risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes in imprisoned pregnant women: a systematic review

Reference Study Design Setting Participants (imprisoned pregnant women and population control women) Quality
Stauber 1984 [14] Cohort Berlin, Germany 43 pregnant women imprisoned between 1973 and 1982. 172 women from the same hospital matched with cases by age, parity, marital status and year of birth. B
Elton 1985 [15] Cohort Manchester, UK 298 pregnant women admitted to one prison 1975–1982. 298 non-imprisoned women selected from the same hospital antenatal clinic matched with cases by age, marital status, previous stillbirths and height. A
Shelton 1989 [16] Case series Missouri, Maryland, USA 26 imprisoned women who delivered in 1982. B
Cordero 1991 [9] Case Series Ohio, USA 53 pregnant women imprisoned for between 1 week and 90 days. 53 matched pregnant women imprisoned for greater than 120 days. 1986–1990. A
Cordero 1992 [8] Case Series Ohio, USA 233 pregnant women imprisoned in the state medium-security prison 1986–1990. B
Egley 1992 [7] Cohort North Carolina, USA 69 imprisoned pregnant women cared for at one hospital during 1988. 69 non-imprisoned pregnant women from the same hospital matched with cases by age, race, parity and date of entry into prenatal care. A
Fogel 1993 [6] Case Series North Carolina, USA 89 pregnant women imprisoned between 1986 and 1989. A
Terk 1993 [10] Cohort Texas, USA 76 imprisoned pregnant women 1987–1990. 117 unmatched randomly-chosen non-imprisoned pregnant women from the same hospital during the same time period. A
Martin 1997 [17] Cohort North Carolina, USA 168 imprisoned pregnant women who gave birth to one infant between 1988 and 1991 identified from state records. 3910 unmatched randomly selected women resident in and delivering in North Carolina over the same time period. B
Kyei-Aboagye 2000 [5] Cohort Massachusetts, USA 31 imprisoned pregnant women delivering at one hospital between 1993 and 1996. 71 unmatched randomly chosen non-imprisoned women delivering at the same hospital. B
Mertens 2001 [18] Cohort Illinois, USA 71 pregnant women imprisoned in a county jail in one calendar year. 51 pregnant women identified from state records and matched with cases by age, race, gravidity and zip code of residence. C
Siefert 2001 [19] Case Series Michigan, USA 120 pregnant women imprisoned before commencement of a residential program (1987–1991), 44 unmatched pregnant women imprisoned after the residential program (1991–1995). A
Barkauskas 2002 [20] Case Series Michigan, USA 90 imprisoned pregnant women in a residential care program and 40 unmatched imprisoned pregnant women not in the residential programme.1996–1998. C