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Table 4 Explaining ethnic differences in low birth weight, preterm birth and IUGR: results of logistic regression (odds ratios for Roma vs non-Roma, 95% confidence intervals and p-values).

From: Unfavourable birth outcomes of the Roma women in the Czech Republic and the potential explanations: a population-based study

Adjusted for: Low birth weight Preterm birth IUGR
  OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value
Crude 4.5 (3.7–5.4) < 0.001 2.8 (2.2–3.4) < 0.001 2.9 (2.5–3.4) < 0.001
Infants' demographic characteristics
(gender and district)
4.3 (3.5–5.2) < 0.001 2.5 (2.1–3.1) < 0.001 2.9 (2.5–3.3) < 0.001
Mothers' demographic characteristics
(age, number of pregnancies)
3.9 (3.2–4.8) < 0.001 2.4 (1.9–3.0) < 0.001 2.8 (2.4–3.3) < 0.001
Mothers' social characteristics
(education, marital status)
2.6 (2.0–3.3) < 0.001 2.0 (1.5–2.6) < 0.001 1.8 (1.5–2.1) < 0.001
Maternal height and weight 2.9 (2.4–3.6) < 0.001 2.2 (1.8–2.8) < 0.001 2.0 (1.7–2.3) < 0.001
Maternal smoking and
alcohol consumption
3.3 (2.6–4.1) < 0.001 2.1 (1.7–2.7) < 0.001 2.2 (1.9–2.6) < 0.001
All covariates
listed above
1.7 (1.3–2.2) < 0.001 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 0.010 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 0.029