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Table 1 Prevalence of PTSD, depression and anxiety in population-based studies on refugees living in a Western country

From: Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study

Reference Prevalence PTSD Prevalence depression Prevalence anxiety Measurement instrument Study population
[13] 4% 3% 5% CIDI 1161 Vietnamese refugees living on average 11 years in Australia
[39, 40] 4% (and 9% just after arrival) 18% 2% criteria from the DSM- Third Edition (PTSD) and Present State Examination (depression and anxiety) 145 Vietnamese quota refugees interviewed 3 years after resettlement in Norway
[10, 41, 42] 11% 4%   criteria from the DSM-Revised Third Edition 86 Iranian and 70 Turkish asylum seekers (51%) and refugees living in reception centres (62%) in the Netherlands (70% less than 1 year)
[43] 12%    Post-traumatic stress section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule 223 Cambodian refugees living 3 months to 10 years in New Zealand
[24] 15%    HTQ 240 refugees, predominantly from former Yugoslavia, interviewed on average 10 months and 3 years after resettlement in Norway
[44] 18–33% 21%   modified version of the Post-traumatic Symptom Scale (PTSD) and a questionnaire (depression) 206 refugees from Bosnia-Hercegovina living in an asylum centre in Sweden
[8] 22%    HTQ 157 refugees from Kosovo living on average 2 years in Canada
[27] 32% 63% 36% HTQ (PTSD) en HSCL-25 (depression and anxiety) 54 Somalian asylum seekers (76%) and refugees living in reception centres (65% less than 6 months) in the Netherlands
[45] 35% 57%   CIDI 51 Afghan refugees living on average 4 years in the Netherlands
[25] 35% 33% 23% CIDI (PTSD) and HSCL-25 (depression and anxiety) 40 asylum seekers from 21 countries living on average 3 years in Australia
[32] 37%    CAPS 86 Iraqi and Kurdish refugees recently resettled in Sweden
[12] 45% 51%   Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-revised (PTSD) and National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (depression) 124 Cambodian refugees living on average 8 years in the United States
[46] 50%    Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Fourth Edition 40 refugees from former Yugoslavia living on average 3.5 years in a refugee camp in Italy
[47] 61%    PDS 129 Kosovar refugees studied immediately upon resettlement in the United States
[48] 63%    CAPS 126 Bosnian refugees with a permanent residency status living for over 3 years (92%) in Australia
[49] 65% 44% 34% PDS (PTSD) and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventory 842 refugees from Kosovo living in reception centres in the United Kingdom
[26] 86% 88% 80% PTSD Checklist based on criteria from the DSM-Revised Third Edition and HSCL-25 (depression and anxiety) 50 Cambodian refugees living on average 5 years in the United States
[50] 70%    PDS 41 Bosnian refugees living in the United States
[51]   6% (just after arrival) – 2% (10 years after arrival)   symptom inventory 608 Southeast Asian refugees living in Canada
[52]   25% 25% HSCL 180 Somali refugees (96%) and asylum seekers living on average 8 years in the United Kingdom
[28]   29% 15% HSCL-25 129 Indochinese refugees living in New Zealand
  1. CIDI = Composite International Diagnostic Interview; DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; HTQ = Harvard Trauma Questionnaire; CAPS = Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; PDS = Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale; HSCL = Hopkins Symptom Check List