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Table 3 Odds ratios for food consumption according level of education, adjusted for age, BMI, smoking habits, physical activity and income

From: Educational and economic determinants of food intake in Portuguese adults: a cross-sectional survey

Women Men
  OR IC(95%) P trend   OR IC(95%) P trend
Vegetable soup     Vegetable soup    
Education     Education    
≤4 years   (reference)   ≤4 years   (reference)  
5–9 years 0.90 0.82–1.00   5–9 years 0.99 0.90–1.09  
10–12 years 0.94 0.83–1.07   10–12 years 1.07 0.94–1.21  
>12 years 1.20 1.05–1.38 0.046 >12 years 1.15 1.00–1.32 0.045
Vegetables     Vegetables    
Education     Education    
≤4 years   (reference)   ≤4 years   (reference)  
5–9 years 1.05 0.92–1.20   5–9 years 1.09 0.97–1.23  
10–12 years 1.17 0.99–1.39   10–12 years 1.38 1.17–1.62  
>12 years 1.75 1.44–2.13 <0.001 >12 years 1.44 1.19–1.74 <0.001
Fruit     Fruit    
Education     Education    
≤4 years   (reference)   ≤4 years   (reference)  
5–9 years 1.30 1.09–1.55   5–9 years 1.30 1.13–1.49  
10–12 years 1.63 1.29–2.06   10–12 years 1.75 1.45–2.13  
>12 years 1.92 1.49–2.49 <0.001 >12 years 1.68 1.35–2.10 <0.001
Bread     Bread    
Education     Education    
≤4 years   (reference)   ≤4 years   (reference)  
5–9 years 0.78 0.63–0.96   5–9 years 0.97 0.75–1.25  
10–12 years 0.50 0.39–0.64   10–12 years 0.73 0.54–1.00  
>12 years 0.44 0.34–0.56 <0.001 >12 years 0.44 0.33–0.59 <0.001
Other starchy     Other starchy    
Education     Education    
≤4 years   (reference)   ≤4 years   (reference)  
5–9 years 0.99 0.81–1.20   5–9 years 1.09 0.88–1.35  
10–12 years 0.72 0.57-0.92   10-12 years 1.07 0.80-1.43  
>12 years 0.68 0.53-0.87 <0.001 >12 years 1.15 0.83-1.60 0.355
Fish     Fish    
Education     Education    
≤4 years   (reference)   ≤4 years   (reference)  
5-9 years 1.06 0.96-1.17   5-9 years 1.14 1.04-1.25  
10-12 years 1.24 1.09-1.40   10-12 years 1.36 1.20-1.54  
>12 years 1.40 1.23-1.60 <0.001 >12 years 1.50 1.31-1.72 <0.001
Meat     Meat    
Education     Education    
≤4 years   (reference)   ≤4 years   (reference)  
5-9 years 1.01 0.89-1.14   5-9 years 1.09 0.96-1.23  
10-12 years 1.02 0.86-1.21   10-12 years 1.27 1.06-1.52  
>12 years 0.95 0.80-1.13 0.693 >12 years 1.16 0.96-1.41 0.014