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Table 4 Absences due to communicable illness, cumulative incidence rates and percent relative effects of an alcoholic rinse-free hand sanitizer

From: A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

   Intervention Control  
Trials No. of students No. of absences (No. of students) Absenteeism risk No. of absences (No. of students) Absenteeism risk Percent Relative Effect (95% CI)*
Hammond et al. 31 6080 7441.5 (3075) 2.42 9066 (3005) 3.02 20 (19, 21)
Guinan et al. 10 290 140 (145) 0.97 277 (145) 1.91 49 (42, 56)
  1. * Percent relative effect = (1- intervention risk/control risk) *100
  2. 95 percent confidence interval = (1–95% UCL of Risk Ratio)*100 to (1–95% LCL of Risk Ratio)*100