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Table 2 Percent of women who initiated breastfeeding by baseline characteristics*

From: Breastfeeding practices in a cohort of inner-city women: the role of contraindications

Characteristic N† Percent who initiated breastfeeding P
Total 393 51%  
Documented contraindication    
   Yes 61 13% <0.0001
   No 332 58%  
Ethnicity    
   Hispanic 68 81% <0.0001
   Non-Hispanic 325 45%  
Marital status    
   Married/living with a partner 108 62% 0.007
   Single/no partner 284 47%  
Mother's birth place    
   United States 309 42% <0.0001
   Other (foreign-born) 84 85%  
Mother employed in last 12 months    
   Yes 147 56% 0.09
   No 242 48%  
Enrolled in WIC    
   Yes 218 58% 0.002
   No 175 42%  
Grandmother living in the home    
   Yes 110 43% 0.04
   No 283 54%  
Supportive relative available§    
   Yes 322 48% 0.02
   No 71 63%  
Supportive friend available§    
   Yes 288 55% 0.03
   No 103 42%  
Someone in the home with a drug problem    
   Yes 22 27% 0.02
   No 367 52%  
Maternal tobacco use    
   Yes 87 28% <0.0001
   No 274 59%  
Maternal alcohol use    
   Yes 41 20% <0.0001
   No 305 56%  
Pregnancy wanted    
   Yes 255 54% 0.14
   No 133 46%  
Mother depressed in the last year    
   Yes 160 47% 0.18
   No 229 54%  
Mother with condition requiring medical care    
   Yes 51 35% 0.02
   No 342 54%  
Number of previous live births    
   None 134 58% 0.05
   One or more 258 48%  
Gestation at entry into prenatal care    
   ≤ 4 months 255 56% 0.01
   > 4 months 138 43%  
Mode of delivery    
   Vaginal 299 49% 0.08
   Cesarean section 89 60%  
Infant birth weight    
   < 2500 grams 40 38% 0.07
   ≥ 2500 grams 352 53%  
Hospital of delivery    
   A 106 50% 0.14
   B 86 60%  
   C 201 48%  
  1. *Baseline variables not associated with initiation of breastfeeding (P > 0.2) included maternal years of education, whether mother was above poverty level, whether mother or infant ever threatened, and whether mother discussed feeding method choice with a doctor or nurse during pregnancy. †Numbers may not add up to 393 due to missing data. ‡P-values computed using chi-square tests. §Study subjects were asked in they had a relative/friend not living in the same household with whom they spoke every day or nearly everyday and in whom they felt they could confide.