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Table 1 Comparison of smallpox vaccination adverse effects studies meeting selection criteria for this systematic review

From: Risks of serious complications and death from smallpox vaccination: A systematic review of the United States experience, 1963–1968

Study and year published [Ref] Source Number of primary and re-vaccinations Screening occurred Complications Numerator source Denominator source
      Complication Death  
Neff 1967a [19] United States, 1963 6,239,000
7,775,000
NR PVE, VN, EV, GV, AI Red Cross VIG distribution system, CDC, National Survey of pediatrician and general practitioners Deaths certificates Estimated by National Bureau of Census Immunization Survey
Neff 1967b [22] United States, 1963 (North Carolina, Rhode Island, Washington, Wyoming) 298,000
370,000
NR PVE, VN, EV, GV, AI Retrospective physician survey, Local health officers, Records at major medical centers Death certificates Estimated by National Bureau of Census Immunization Survey
Lane 1969 [24] United States, 1968 5,594,000
8,574,000
NR PVE, VN, EV, GV, AI Red Cross VIG distribution system, Red Cross consultants, State & Territorial Epidemiologists, Burroughs-Wellcome Co., Vaccine manufacturers, NCDC Encephalitic Surveillance Unit, NCDC Viral Exanthems Unit Death certificates Estimated by National Bureau of Census Immunization Survey
Lane 1970 [25] United States, 1968 (Alabama, Alaska, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Washington, West Virginia) 596,000
998,000
NR PVE, VN, EV, GV, AI Prospective physician survey, Public health nurse survey (2 states) NR Estimated by National Bureau of Census Immunization Survey
Mellin 1970 [23] United States, 1968 (Maryland) 109,000
166,000
NR PVE, VN, EV, GV, AI Medical and chirurgical faculty, County health officers, Chief pediatricians in general hospitals, Red Cross VIG distribution system, General hospitals, Public health nurses NR Estimated by National Bureau of Census Immunization Survey
Ratner 1970 [21] Puerto Rico, 1967 369,546
465,926
Yesa PVE, VN, EV, GV, AI Physician survey, Immunization nurses, University hospital dermatologists, Red Cross VIG distribution system NR National smallpox vaccination campaign
Neff 1972 [20] United States, 1968 (Baltimore pediatric clinic) 549
433
NR PVE, VN, EV, GV, AI Pediatric clinic chart review NR Clinic chart review
  1. NR = Not reported, PVE = post-vaccinial encephalitis, VN = vaccinia necrosum, EV = eczema vaccinatum, GV = generalized vaccinia, AI = accidental infection (inadvertant autoinoculation), VIG = Vaccinia immune globulin, NCDC = National Communicable Disease Center. aVaccinations withheld from persons aged less than 1 year or greater than 60 years, and persons with acute illness, blood dyscrasia, malignancy, pregnancy, eczema or infectious skin disease, eczema in household contacts, steroid therapy, radiation therapy; cerebral damage, or seizure disorder. bWyeth Dryvax product licensed and is use during this period [11]