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Table 1 Healthcare workers' characteristics and self-reported willingness to accept smallpox immunization

From: Attitudes of healthcare workers in U.S. hospitals regarding smallpox vaccination

  Total By expressed willingness to be immunized
    Yes/probably Probably not/no/
don't know
 
  n %       n %       n %       p-value*
All 1165 100 % 708 61% 450 39%  
Perceived risk of attack        <0.0001
   High/intermediate 610 53% 422 70% 184 30%  
   Low/next to zero 400 35% 185 47% 212 53%  
   Can't guess 144 12% 95 66% 49 34%  
Region        0.03
   Northeast (9 hospitals) 503 43% 278 56% 222 44%  
   Mid-Atlantic & Southeast (8 hospitals) 317 27% 205 65% 111 35%  
   Midwest & West (4 hospitals) 345 30% 225 66% 117 34%  
Main work area        0.11
   ED or ED consult 558 48% 349 63% 208 37%  
   ICU (adult or pediatric) or consult 434 37% 248 57% 184 43%  
   Other/none specified 173 15% 111 66% 58 34%  
Profession        0.86
   Physician 351 30% 210 61% 137 39%  
   Non-physician clinician 642 55% 392 61% 248 39%  
   Other/none specified 172 15% 106 62% 65 38%  
Age        0.41
   Up to 29 277 24% 170 62% 106 38%  
   30–39 356 31% 206 58% 147 42%  
   40–49 315 27% 191 61% 121 39%  
   50 or over 207 18% 135 65% 72 35%  
Gender        <0.0001
   Male 408 35% 257 63% 148 37%  
   Female 743 65% 440 60% 299 40%  
Children < 18 at home?**        <0.0001**
   Yes 461 41% 281 61% 177 39%  
   No 676 59% 413 61% 259 39%  
Ever vaccinated against smallpox        0.07
   Yes 606 52% 384 64% 217 36%  
   No 418 36% 241 58% 175 42%  
   Not sure 140 12% 82 59% 58 41%  
How well informed about risks and benefits of smallpox vaccination        0.0002
   Very well 138 12% 98 72% 39 28%  
   Fairly well 474 41% 304 65% 167 35%  
   Not well 456 39% 255 56% 198 44%  
   Not at all 94 8% 50 53% 44 47%  
How carefully read accompanying smallpox vaccine information sheet**        <0.0001**
   Read carefully 534 47% 326 62% 204 38%  
   Read some parts 182 16% 111 62% 69 38%  
   Skimmed quickly 234 21% 150 64% 84 36%  
   Didn't read it 189 17% 106 56% 83 44%  
  1. NB: Where subtotals do not add to 1,165, this is due to missing answers on the questionnaire. * Adjusted for clustering within hospital and variation in the number of responses per hospital. ** Two variables, children at home and reading the VIS, were statistically significant in the bivariate analysis but were excluded from the multivariate model. Hospital-specific odds ratios for favoring vaccination with children at home compared to without children at home ranged from 0.22 to 5.5, but only one of the 21 was statistically significant (OR 1.14, p=.03). Similarly, on hospital-specific analysis, odds ratios for the various levels of reading the VIS compared to not reading it at all varied from 0.09 (for reading parts of it) to 5.3 (for reading it carefully) and none were statistically significant. We concluded that there was little evidence of a meaningful association and removed both variables from the final multivariate model.