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Table 2 Univariate analyses of composite variables constructed for each major route of transmission

From: Is drinking water a risk factor for endemic cryptosporidiosis? A case-control study in the immunocompetent general population of the San Francisco Bay Area

EXPOSURE Cases Controls Univariate 95% CI P-value
  N (%) N (%) OR   
Drinking water      
   Level of riska      
Boil water 2 (7.7) 4 (6.5) 1.00   
Filter or bottle water 10 (38.5) 27 (43.6) 0.74 0.11, 5.02 0.754
Tap, no further treatment 14 (53.9) 31 (50.0) 0.92 0.16, 5.30 0.929
Recreational water      
   Swimming, hot tub/spring 8 (30.8) 18 (29.0) 1.02 0.28, 3.75 0.973
Food sources b      
   Unsafe foods consumed 22 (84.6) 59 (95.2) 0.38 0.08, 1.79 0.223
   Handle raw foods 5 ( 19.2 ) 28 ( 45.2 ) 0.23 0.06, 0.85 0.028
   All combined 22 (84.6) 60 (96.8) 0.25 0.44, 1.44 0.121
Travel      
   >100 miles from home c 17 ( 65.4 ) 18 ( 29.0 ) 4.44 1.53, 12.8 0.006
   To another country 13 ( 50.0 ) 3 ( 4.84 ) 25.7 3.28, 201 0.002
Person-to-person (fecal)      
   Day care/camp contact 6 (23.1) 19 (30.7) 0.76 0.27, 2.14 0.604
   Contact with diapers 12 (46.2) 31 (50.0) 1.03 0.38, 2.78 0.959
   Contact with people with diarrhea 6 (23.1) 13 (21.0) 1.07 0.28, 4.09 0.927
   All combined 15 (57.7) 39 (62.9) 0.76 0.28, 2.09 0.599
Animal contact 14 (53.9) 45 (72.6) 0.48 0.16,1.45 0.194
Sexual activity d 9(52.9) 20 (45.5) 1.59 0.44, 5.74 0.476
  1. aTests for trend: linear P-value = 0.674; non-parametric extension of Wilcoxon rank sum P-value = 0.660. bUnpasteurized food consumption could not be analyzed because of insufficient data. cThis includes the subset who traveled to another country. dAny sexual relations in 2-week risk period or >1 sexual partner in last 6 months (asked of all adults over 18 years of age)