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Table 2 Comparison of participants, those respondents who refused but allowed an informant interview, and those who refused all participation at Wave 2: Means (and SDs) or percentages

From: Predictors of refusal to participate: a longitudinal health survey of the elderly in Australia

Wave 1 variables Participants n = 560–638 Refused but informant interview n = 22–36 Refused all Participation N = 60–78 P-value
Age at Wave 1 76.5 (4.9) 77.9 (5.4) 75.9 (4.0) .123
Sex (% male) 48.58 44.44 42.31 .532
Years of education 11.45 (2.64) 10.82 (1.95) 10.56 (2.28) .009
Occupational status (% white collar) 65.78 48.57 42.86 .000
Lives alone (%) * 35.78 31.25 49.30 .066
NART 113.23 (9.05) 103.23 (11.51) 105.78 (10.89) .000
MMSE 27.69 (2.30) 23.10 (5.49) 26.14 (4.48) .000
DSM-III dementia (%) 4.7 34.6 13.5 .000
ADL 1.75 (2.51) 3.73 (4.56) 1.37 (1.56) .000
Chronic illness 2.94 (1.92) 2.94 (2.16) 2.67 (1.60) .498
Sight problems 0.88 (1.88) 2.03 (3.87) 0.92 (1.97) .005
Hearing problems 1.99 (2.45) 2.87 (3.11) 2.14 (2.66) .150
Anxiety 2.41 (2.23) 2.18 (2.58) 2.84 (2.63) .269
Depression 1.89 (1.88) 2.52 (2.38) 2.14 (2.15) .153
Extroversion 5.89 (3.23) 5.95 (3.14) 6.47 (3.11) .413
Neuroticism 3.04 (2.80) 4.05 (3.29) 3.28 (2.71) .223
Distressed by interview (%) 4.01 9.68 10.96 .016
  1. * Living alone or with others was only examined in those living in the community.