Skip to main content

Table 2 Demographic Characteristics and prevalence of parameters for adolescent aged 13 years old by gender and Place of Residences

From: An exploratory study on risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases among adolescents in Malaysia: overview of the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (The MyHeART study)

Baseline characteristic Male Female Total (%) Chi square
(N = 1361) N = 525
No (%)
N = 836
No (%)
  p-value
Place of residence  
   Urban 240 (45.7) 483 (57.8) 723 (53.1) 18.8 <0.001
   Rural 285 (54.3) 353 (42.2) 638 (46.9)   
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)  
   Normal (<130) 497 (95.2) 795 (95.1) 1292 (94.9)   
   Hypertensive (≥130) 25 (4.8) 33 (3.9) 58 (4.3) 0.5 0.478
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)  
   Normal (<85) 496(94.5) 788 (94.3) 1284 (94.3)   
   Hypertensive (≥85) 26 (5.0) 40 (4.8) 66 (4.8) 0.02 0.901
Fasting Blood Glucose (mmol/L)  
   Normal (3.9-5.5) 496 (94.5) 788 (94.3) 1284 (94.1) 9.3 <0.05
   High (≥5.6) 26 (5.0) 27 (3.2) 53 (3.9)   
   Low (<3.9) 3 (0.6) 21 (2.5) 24 (1.8)   
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L)  
   Desirable (<5.2) 415 (79.0) 624 (74.6) 1039 (76.3) 3.5 0.176
   Borderline (5.2-6.2) 92 (17.5) 178 (21.3) 270 (19.8)   
   High Risk (>6.2) 18 (3.4) 34 (4.1) 52 (3.8)   
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)      
   At risk (≤1.03) 478 (91.0) 795 (95.1) 1273 (93.5) 8.74 <0.05
   Normal (>1.03) 47 (9.0) 41 (4.9) 88 (6.5)   
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)      
   Optimal (<2.58) 252 (48.0) 334 (40.0) 586 (43.1)   
   Near Optimal (2.58-3.34) 179 (34.1) 343 (41.0) 522 (38.4)   
   Borderline (3.35-4.11) 73 (13.9) 120 (14.4) 193 (14.2) 9.74 <0.05
   High (4.12-4.89) 15 (2.9) 31 (3.7) 46 (3.4)   
   Very high (>4.9) 6 (1.1) 8 (1.0) 14 (1.0)   
Triglycerides (mmol/L)      
   Normal (<1.7) 491 (93.5) 784 (93.8) 1275 (93.7) 0.04 0.850
   High (≥ 1.7) 34 (6.5) 52 (6.2) 86 (6.3)   
BMI (IOTF standards kgm -2 )      
   Underweight (<15.8m; <16.3f ) 103 (20.0) 183 (23.0) 286 (21.9)   
   Normal (15.8 - <21.9m; 16.3 - <22.6f) 282 (53.7) 456 (54.5) 738 (54.2) 5.8 0.329
   Overweight (<21.9 - <26.8m; 22.6 - <27.8f) 82 (15.6) 128 (15.3) 210 (15.4)   
   Obese (≥26.8m; ≥27.8f) 56(10.7) 60 (7.2) 116 (8.5)   
Smoking      
   No 432 (82.3) 790 (94.5) 1222 (89.8) 47.8 <0.001
   Yes 81 (15.4) 39 (4.7) 120 (8.8)   
  Urban Rural Total (%) Chi square
  No (%) No (%)   x 2 p-value
Ethnicity  
   Malay 521 (72.1) 570 (89.3) 1091 (80.2)   
   Chinese 98 (13.6) 7 (1.1) 105 (7.7) 118.5 <0.001
   Indian 83 (11.5) 22 (3.4) 105 (7.7)   
   Others 12 (1.7) 29 (4.5) 41 (3.0)   
Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)  
   Normal (<130) 680 (94.1) 612 (95.9) 1292 (94.9)   
   Hypertensive (≥130) 32 (4.4) 26 (4.1) 58 (4.3) 0.14 0.705
Diastolic Blood Pressure (mmHg)  
   Normal (<85) 687 (95.0) 597 (93.6) 1284 (94.3)   
   Hypertensive (≥85) 25 (3.5) 41 (6.4) 66 (4.8) 6.1 <0.05
Fasting Blood Glucose (mmol/L)  
   Normal (3.9-5.5) 692 (95.7) 592 (92.8) 1284 (94.1) 10.7 <0.05
   High (≥5.6) 26 (3.6) 27 (4.2) 53 (3.9)   
   Low (<3.9) 5 (0.7) 19 (3.0) 24 (1.8)   
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L)  
   Desirable (<5.2) 579 (80.1) 460 (72.1) 1039 (76.3)   
   Borderline (5.2-6.2) 127 (17.6) 143 (22.4) 270 (19.8) 15.6 <0.001
   High Risk (>6.2) 17 (2.4) 35 (5.5) 52 (3.8)   
HDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)  
   At risk (≤1.03) 681 (94.2) 592 (92.8) 1273 (93.5) 1.1 0.294
   Normal (>1.03) 42 (5.8) 46 (7.2) 88 (6.5)   
LDL Cholesterol (mmol/L)  
   Optimal (<2.58) 343 (47.4) 243 (38.1) 586 (43.1)   
   Near Optimal (2.58-3.34) 271 (37.5) 251 (39.3) 522 (38.4) 27.9 <0.001
   Borderline (3.35-4.11) 93 (12.9) 100 (15.7) 193 (14.2)   
   High (4.12-4.89) 10 (1.4) 36 (5.6) 46 (3.4)   
   Very high (>4.9) 6 (0.8) 8 (1.3) 14 (1.0)   
Triglycerides (mmol/l)      
   Normal (<1.7) 670 (92.7) 605 (94.8) 1275 (93.7) 2.67 0.102
   High (≥ 1.7) 53 (7.3) 33 (5.2) 86 (6.3)   
Smoking      
   No 656 (90.7) 566 (88.7) 1222 (89.8) 1.26 0.262
   Yes 58 (8.0) 62 (9.7) 120 (8.8)   
  1. m=male, f=female