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Table 5 Effect of different warning labels and endorsements on openness to trying alternative tobacco products

From: Nonsmokers’ responses to new warning labels on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes: an experimental study

  Moist snuff Snus E-cigarettes
  Pretest Posttest d Pretest Posttest d Pretest Posttest d
Current WL 1.12 1.88 0.38* 1.08 1.75 0.39* 1.12 1.72 0.37*
Graphic WL 1.00 1.44 0.33* 1.03 1.34 0.29* 1.54 1.70 0.09
“Lower risks” 1.12 1.31 0.19 1.14 1.33 0.18 1.40 2.18 0.38*
“FDA Approved” 1.07 1.33 0.29* 1.15 1.47 0.26* 1.40 1.62 0.14
No Label 1.10 1.35 0.20 1.05 1.55 0.36* 1.15 1.71 0.42*
Control Advertisement 1.07 1.48 0.30* 1.05 1.33 0.24* 1.42 1.85 0.24*
  1. *p < .05 (Significant differences from pretest to posttest, multivariate simple effects of time based on the linearly independent pairwise comparisons among the estimated marginal means).