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Table 4 Effect of different warning labels and endorsements on positive attitudes towards alternative tobacco products

From: Nonsmokers’ responses to new warning labels on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes: an experimental study

  Moist snuff Snus E-cigarettes
  Pretest Posttest d Pretest Posttest d Pretest Posttest d
Current WL 1.90 1.88 -0.02 1.93 2.02 0.07 3.06 2.67 -0.28*
Graphic WL 1.77 1.74 -0.03 1.84 1.85 0.00 3.48 3.02 -0.26*
“Lower risks” 1.76 1.72 -0.04 2.05 2.03 -0.03 3.68 3.56 -0.09
“FDA Approved” 1.75 1.60 -0.18 1.87 2.04 0.12 3.44 3.14 -0.20
No Label 1.45 1.51 0.09 1.72 1.76 0.03 3.39 3.11 -0.15
Control Advertisement 1.67 1.69 0.01 1.88 1.83 -0.03 3.78 3.69 -0.07
  1. *p < .05 (Significant differences from pretest to posttest, multivariate simple effects of time based on the linearly independent pairwise comparisons among the estimated marginal means).