Skip to main content

Table 3 Effect of different warning labels and endorsements on perceived harm of tobacco products

From: Nonsmokers’ responses to new warning labels on smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes: an experimental study

  Moist snuff Snus E-cigarettes
  Pretest Posttest d Pretest Posttest d Pretest Posttest d
Current WL 7.08 7.26 0.10 7.29 7.16 -0.09 5.51 5.96 0.24*
Graphic WL 6.86 7.57 0.27* 7.54 7.56 0.01 4.33 5.67 0.54*
“Lower risks” 7.47 6.96 -0.24* 7.13 6.89 -0.12 4.81 5.15 0.15
“FDA Approved” 7.30 7.45 0.07 7.44 6.98 -0.25* 5.15 5.24 0.04
No Label 7.26 7.59 0.13 7.32 7.20 -0.05 5.08 5.20 0.05
Control Advertisement 6.78 7.31 0.20 7.37 7.27 -0.04 4.56 4.94 0.19
  1. *p < .05 (Significant differences from pretest to posttest, multivariate simple effects of time based on the linearly independent pairwise comparisons among the estimated marginal means).