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Table 4 Factors associated with poor ART adherence during pregnancy

From: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and the first year postpartum among HIV-positive women in Ukraine

  CASE score ≤11 points (25/173) Fisher’s exact test ≥1 missed dose (61/176) Fisher’s exact test
Age     
<25 years 26% (11/42) p = 0.13 52% (23/44) p= 0.03
25-27 years 10% (5/48)   23% (11/48)  
28-30 years 12% (5/41)   29% (12/41)  
≥31 years 10% (4/42)   35% (15/43)  
Marital status     
Married 14% (13/93) p = 0.96 34% (32/95) p = 0.83
Cohabiting 15% (7/48)   33% (16/48)  
Single 16% (5/32)   39% (13/33)  
Pregnancy planned     
Yes 11% (13/120) p= 0.03 30% (36/122) p= 0.02
No 25% (12/48)   49% (24/49)  
Lives with family     
No 10% (12/115) p= 0.04 29% (34/117) p= 0.04
Yes 23% (13/57)   46% (26/57)  
Lives with partner     
No 18% (9/49) p = 0.47 45% (22/49) p = 0.08
Yes 13% (16/123)   30% (38/125)  
Disclosed HIV status to anyone     
No 20% (3/15) p = 0.46 38% (6/16) p = 0.79
Yes 14% (22/157)   35% (55/159)  
Current smoker     
No 14% (18/127) p = 1.00 30% (39/129) p = 0.07
Yes 14% (6/44)   47% (21/45)  
History of drug use (other than marijuana)     
No 14% (21/146) p = 1.00 35% (52/149) p = 1.00
Yes 14% (3/21)   33% (7/21)  
Self-efficacy score     
≥5 (higher self-efficacy) 12% (13/107) p = 0.22 28% (30/108) p= 0.04
<5 (lower self-efficacy) 22% (6/27)   50% (14/28)  
Positive depression screen     
No 13% (16/124) p = 0.33 31% (39/125) p = 0.08
Yes 20% (9/46)   46% (22/48)  
Can you ask doctor for support?     
Certain/fairly certain 14% (21/155) p = 0.06 33% (52/156) p = 0.34
Cannot do 36% (4/11)   50% (6/12)  
Antenatal ART     
Zidovudine monotherapy 29% (4/14) p = 0.23 64% (9/14) p= 0.02
cART 13% (19/141)   31% (44/143)  
Severity of ART side effects     
Not bothered or only slightly 14% (18/126) p = 0.81 33% (42/127) p = 0.71
Somewhat or terribly bothered 16% (7/43)   37% (16/43)  
Knowledge of whether antenatal ART is effective for PMTCT     
Completely or fairly sure that it is effective 12% (20/162) p = 0.10 33% (54/165) p = 0.17
Unsure that it is effective 33% (3/9)   56% (5/9)  
  1. p values ≤0.5 are indicated in bold.